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Articles by S. Rajagunalan
Total Records ( 4 ) for S. Rajagunalan
  Kuldeep Dhama , Amit Kumar Verma , S. Rajagunalan , Rajib Deb , K. Karthik , Sanjay Kapoor , Mahima , Ruchi Tiwari , Parmod Kumar Panwar and Sandip Chakraborty
  Flu viruses have mainly affected humans, birds and pigs worldwide. During the past 10 years these viruses are in limelight at a global level due to pandemic threats of Avian / Bird Flu and Swine Flu and their public health impacts, with added pandemic of swine flu virus recently. The current ongoing episodes of bird flu and swine flu are beyond the control, when and where or which country they start with nobody can predict. The continuous evolution and emergence of new strains indicate that the flu viruses are becoming more and more dangerous and this situation has posed a challenge to researchers to discover effective vaccines and therapeutics. Moreover, the role of pig as ‘mixing bowl’ for the virus to get reassorted has added to the complicated epidemiological scenario. The swine flu H1N1 reassorted subtype caused the first global pandemic in last 40 years, resulting in substantial illness, hospitalizations of millions of peoples and thousands of deaths throughout the world. A pace is there within these novel and emerging flu viruses and the scientific community, where the scientific community has to win the race so as to save the mankind. In this review, a brief overview on swine flu is presented highlighting the characteristics of the causative virus, the disease and its public health consequences, advances made in its diagnosis, vaccine and control, precautionary measures to be adapted in the wake of an outbreak.
  Kuldeep Dhama , Amit Kumar Verma , S. Rajagunalan , Amit Kumar , Ruchi Tiwari , Sandip Chakraborty and Rajesh Kumar
  Listeriosis is a disease that causes septicemia or encephalitis in humans, animals and birds. Although, the disease is rare and sporadic in poultry but if occurs then causes septicemia or sometimes localized encephalitis. Occasionally, the disease is seen in young chicks and the causative agent, like in humans and animals, is Listeria monocytogenes. The organism is capable to infect almost all animals and poultry; however, outbreaks of listeriosis are infrequent in birds. It is widely distributed among avian species and chickens, turkeys, waterfowl (geese, ducks), game birds, pigeons, parrots, wood grouse, snowy owl, eagle, canaries, which appear to be the most commonly affected. Chickens are thought to be the carriers of Listeria and also the prime reservoirs for the infection and thus contaminate the litter and environment of the poultry production units. Listeriosis is often noticed along with other poultry diseases such as coccidiosis, infectious coryza, salmonellosis, campylobacteriosis and parasitic infections, signifying the opportunistic nature of the organism. Intestinal colonization of poultry and the presence of L. monocytogenes in feces represent a potential source of the organism for listeriosis in ruminants. Man gets infection from raw broiler meat due to Listeria contamination and unhygienic conditions of the processing area, rather than acquiring direct infection from birds. With the changing food habits of the people, the health consciousness is also increasing and since listeriosis has now been recognized as an emerging food borne zoonoses. Therefore, this review has been compiled to make aware the poultry producers and the consumers of poultry meat/products regarding the importance of the disease and its public health significance.
  Mahima , Abhijeet M. Ingle , Amit Kumar Verma , Ruchi Tiwari , K. Karthik , Sandip Chakraborty , Rajib Deb , S. Rajagunalan , Rajesh Rathore and Kuldeep Dhama
  There are ongoing trends of immunomodulation to combat a vast range of human and animal diseases including the incurable diseases like viral diseases, cancers, autoimmune diseases and inflammatory conditions. Animate as well as non-animate factors, surrounding us are interacting with our immune system. A balanced diet should contain all essential components from energy to vitamin and trace minerals. Each of these constituent has a very special effect on the immune system starting from their development to active role in immunity therefore, the outcome of their deficiency often ends in disease. Edible items which we consume like various vegetables, spices, herbs, fruits etc., are also equally responsible in manipulation of our system either in positive or negative way. Water has biggest share in our body and acts as the main medium to support the activities of the different system of body without exception of immune system. Proper environmental temperature is essential to maintain body’s functions and experiments carried out regarding the effect of temperature suggest that extremes of the temperature are often cause immunosuppression directly by acting on the cells of immunity or indirectly through inducing stress and thereby increasing production of catecholamine which are potent anti-immune molecules. Various pathogenic as well as non-pathogenic bacteria cause immune suppression and immune potentiation, respectively. Proper exercise hold a prime position in the healthy life as it supports immunity and keeps disease away. The present review deals with all these immunomodulators having both positive and negative impact on the health status of an individual.
  K. Dhama , S. Rajagunalan , S. Chakraborty , A.K. Verma , A. Kumar , R. Tiwari and S. Kapoor
  The term food borne diseases or food-borne illnesses or more commonly food poisoning are used to denote gastrointestinal complications that occur following recent consumption of a particular food or drink. Millions of people suffer worldwide every year and the situation is quiet grave in developing nations creating social and economic strain. The food borne pathogens include various bacteria viz., Salmonella, Campylobacter, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Yersinia enterocolitica, Staphylococcus, Arcobacter, Clostridium perfringens, Cl. botulinum and Bacillus cereus and helminths viz., Taenia. They also include protozoa viz., Trichinella, Sarcocystis, Toxoplasma gondii and Cryptosporidium parvum. The zoonotic potential and the ability to elaborate toxins by many of the microbes causing fatal intoxication are sufficient to understand the seriousness of the situation. The viral agents being host specific their transmission to humans through food of animal origin is not yet confirmed although these animal viruses are similar to that of viruses infecting human. Food-borne bacteria; protozoa and helminthes have complex distribution pattern in the environment and inside the host system. This along with complexity of the maintenance chain and life cycle (of parasites) has made it difficult for epidemiologist and diagnostician to undertake any immediate safety measures against them. Serological and molecular diagnostic tests viz. ELISA, Latex agglutination test, Lateral flow assays, Immunomagnetic separation assays, molecular assays viz. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), multiplex PCR, immuno-PCR, Realtime PCR, Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR, DNA microarrays and probes are widely used. Along with these LAMP assays, Capillary Electrophoresis-Single Strand Confirmation polymorphism (CE-SSCP); Flow cytometry, FISH, Biosensors, Direct epifluorescent filter technique, nanotechnology based methods and sophisticated tools (ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging and chlonangio-pancreatography) have aided in the diagnosis greatly. Most of the food-borne illnesses are self-limiting but in many instances antibiotics are recommended. With the increased drug resistance however use of chicken immunoglobulin, bacteriophage therapy, probiotics and herbs are gaining much importance these days. Adoption of proper prevention and control measures (including cooking procedures; hygiene, strict adherence to HACCP principles, public awareness and disease surveillance and monitoring) are the need of hour. All these have been discussed vividly in this review to help epidemiologists, diagnosticians, clinicians and above all common people so as to enable them avoid negligence regarding such serious issue.
 
 
 
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