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Articles by S. Nazifi
Total Records ( 6 ) for S. Nazifi
  J. Tajik and S. Nazifi
  Subacute Ruminal Acidosis (SARA) may be a common and economically important problem in well managed dairy herds. Although, the complex etiology of SARA necessitates its routine monitoring, diagnosis of SARA in a dairy herd based only on clinical signs is very difficult. Rumenocentesis is the only recommended method for SARA diagnosis in dairy herds, however, numerous methods are proposed for the diagnosis of SARA, which have been reviewed in this study.
  S. Nazifi , M. Mohebbi Fani , E. Rowghani and M.R. Behbood
  The relationship between Sub-Clinical Ketosis (SCK) and liver injuries within the first two months of lactation in three commercial dairy herds with rather constant routines in management and nutrition was studied. A total of 77 cows (38 cows in the first and 39 cows in the second months of lactation) were sampled for blood. The serum concentrations of glucose, beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), cholesterol, triglyceride and VLDL-cholesterol were measured at 30 and 60 days after calving. Sub-clinical ketosis was considered in cows with serum concentration of BHB>1000 μmol L-1. The concentration of serum glucose in cows with SCK was significantly (p<0.05) lower than healthy cows after 30 days of calving. However, the concentrations of serum BHB, NEFA, triglyceride and VLDL-Cholesterol in SCK cows were significantly higher (p<0.05) than the healthy cows. In second month of lactation, the concentrations of serum BHB and NEFA in SCK cows were significantly higher than the healthy cows. The concentration of serum BHB, NEFA, triglyceride and VLDL-cholesterol in SCK cows were significantly higher (p<0.05) than the healthy cows at 30 and 60 days postpartum periods. In the first and second months of lactation, a positive significant correlation was observed between serum glucose and GGT (R = 0.409, p<0.05) in the healthy cows. However, significant correlations were observed between serum glucose and cholesterol (R = 0.403, p<0.05) and GGT and cholesterol (R = 0.388, p<0.05) in cows with SCK. Hepatic injuries were not observed in cows with SCK. In spite of negative energy balance in the first and second months of lactation, liver function tests were normal. The results of this study showed that the concentration of serum BHB and NEFA of SCK cows within the first two months of lactation was significantly higher than healthy cows, possibly due to higher energy demands of cows at this stage.
  M. Yavari , M. Haghkhah , M.R. Ahmadi , H.R. Gheisari and S. Nazifi
  The aim of this study was to compare cervical and uterine cytology of the postpartum endometritis and bacterial isolate groups in Holstein dairy cows. Four hundred two postpartum dairy cows from 13 commercial dairy herds were examined once between 21 and 35 days postpartum and 86 Holstein cows with postpartum endometritis were sampled. Endometritis was diagnosed by external observation, rectal palpation, vaginal exam, ultrasonography and cervical and uterine cytological examinations. Bacterial swabs were collected using a transcervical double-guarded swab. In total, cows were classified by clinical signs severity, ovarian status and bacterial culture results. The neutrophil percentage in cervical mucosa and uterine fluid of the cows affected by Arcanobacterium pyogenes and clinical signs of purulent discharge (E3) were significantly (p<0.05) higher than other groups. The large vacuolated epithelial cells percentage in cervical mucosa were higher significantly (p<0.05) than that percentage in uterine fluid. The result of this study couldn’t show any significant differences between neutrophils percentages of cervical mucosa and uterine fluid smear in cows with three classifications. Therefore, cervical sample is practical and applicable in all commercial herds. In conclusion, the cytological evaluation of cervical smear at fresh cows is suitable for diagnosis of subclinical endometritis, planning for treatment and prognosis of fertility after voluntary waiting period of dairy cows.
  M. Tadjalli , S. Nazifi and R. Haghjoo
  In order to study the normal haematopoiesis, cellular components and M/E ratio in the bone marrow of the partridge (Alectoris chukar), bone marrow samples were collected from the proximal tibiotarsus bone of 16 clinically healthy adult partridge (9 male and 7 female). The bone marrow smears were stained using the Giemsa stain. The results indicated that the development and formation of blood cells in the bone marrow of partridge were similar to other birds, whereas the morphology of the cells was similar to chickens, ducks, quail and black-head gull. The mean Myeloid/Erythroid (M/E) ratio was 1.33, the mean erythroid percentage was 39.15%, the mean myeloid percentage was 52.34% and the mean percentage of all other cells percentage was 7.45 %. There was no significant difference in any of the cellular composition between male and female.
  S. Mostafa Razavi , S. Nazifi , N. Mokhtari and E. Rakhshandehroo
  Malignant ovine theileriosis is a fatal disease of sheep caused by Theileria hirci. The present study was designed to estimate the levels of plasma Homocysteine (Hcy), antioxidant enzymes, antioxidant vitamins and lipid peroxidation of erythrocytes and also to evaluate their correlations in different parasitemia rates in naturally infected sheep. Fifty Iranian sheep, about 1-2 years old, naturally infected with T. hirci were selected and divided into 2 subgroups according to their parasitemia rates (<2%, 2-4%). Ten non-infected animals were also selected as controls. Blood samples were collected and Hcy, antioxidant enzymes, antioxidant vitamins and lipid peroxidation of erythrocytes were measured. Our results showed that the activities of erythrocytic antioxidant enzymes including SOD, GPX and catalase were substantially reduced in infected sheep. Furthermore, the animals with higher parasitemia rate showed remarkable declines in SOD, GPX and catalase activities. There was a significant rise in the level of MDA, particularly in the animals with the higher (2-4%) parasitemia rates. In addition, it was evident that coinciding with the elevation of the parasite-bearing erythrocytes in infected animals, the level of lipid peroxidation in RBC membrane was significantly increased. Although the concentration of vitamin C showed a significant decrease in infected sheep with <2% parasitemia rate, the concentrations of antioxidant vitamins (A and E) generally showed no remarkable alterations. In our study, a significant increase was evident in the level of homocysteine in sheep suffering from theileriosis. Our data also showed that the increase in of parasitemia was coupled with the elevation of homocysteine level (r = 0.34, p<0.05).
  S.M. Razavi , B. Moghaddas , E. Rakhshandehroo and S. Nazifi
  Tropical theileriosis of cattle is a common tick-borne disease in tropical and subtropical regions and is recognized as a disease of major economic importance. This study aimed to determine whether Theileria annulata infection influences the plasma homocystein (Hcy), thyroid activity and serum lipid status in infected cattle. Fifty crossbred Holstein cattle, naturally infected with Theileria annulata were selected and divided into 3 subgroups according to their parasitemia rates (<2, 2-4, 4-8%). Also, 10 non-infected cattle were assigned as controls. Blood samples were collected and hematological parameters, plasma Homocystein (Hcy), thyroid hormones (T3, T4, free T3 (fT3) and free T4 (fT4)) and the concentrations of serum lipid and lipoproteins (cholesterol, triglyceride and lipoproteins including HDL, LDL and VLDL cholesterol) and phosphatidylserine (PS) on erythrocytes were measured. According to the results, significant elevations were observed in the concentration of plasma Hcy (hyperhomocysteinemia) in the infected groups compared to controls. In addition, we conclude that T. annulata can interfere with the lipid metabolism, which is particularly characterized by substantial decreases in the levels of cholesterol, LDL and HDL in the serum of affected animals. In spite of remarkable influences of the parasite on Hcy and lipid contents of the serum, our study proved that tropical theileriosis did not affect the thyroid hormones during parasitemia. This study demonstrates that the infection of cattle with Theileria annulata is mainly characterized by the anemia. Also, evidenced elevation in the level of homocystein (hyperhomocysteinemia) in parasitized cattle can result in oxidative stress on erythrocytes and the probable endothelial injuries. In addition, T. annulata can induce failure in lipid metabolism which is particularly featured by a decrease in the cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol concentrations; however the parasite cannot implement significant influences on the thyroid hormones in the affected cattle.
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