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Articles by S. Murugan
Total Records ( 10 ) for S. Murugan
  D. Kalpana Deepa Priya , R. Gayathri , G.R. Gunassekaran , S. Murugan and D. Sakthisekaran
  Sulforaphane (SFN) is an organosulfur compound found in brassica vegetables. The present study was undertaken to investigate the defending role of sulforaphane at a dose of 9 μmoles/mouse/day against the cellular dysfunction in benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P] (100 mg kg-1 b.w., i.p.) induced experimental lung carcinogenesis. The sub cellular derangements were assessed by the cytotoxic and cellular functional markers, lysosomal enzyme leakage and enzymes of nucleic acid metabolism. The concept of free radicals contributing to carcinogenesis was confirmed by evaluating thioredoxin reductase and heme oxygenase. The carcinogenic biomarkers were complemented by immunohistochemical analysis of cell proliferating nuclear antigen-Ki67 and measurement of serum carcinoembryonic antigen by ELISA. Our work proves the chemoprotective potential of sulforaphane in vivo against cellular derangements caused by B(a)P in the process of carcinogenesis.
  S. Subakanmani , S. Murugan and P. Uma Devi
  The purpose of the study was to investigate the anti-depressant like effect of ethanolic extract of H. hookerianum (EEHh 200 and 400 mg kg–1 p.o.,) and its glycosidic flavonoid enriched extract of ethanolic extract of H. hookerianum (GFHh 100 mg kg–1 p.o.,) in reserpine induced (2 mg kg–1 i.p.,) Swiss albino mice. The flavonoidal constiteuents in EEHh and GFHh was confirmed by HPLC. The behavioral analysis of forced swimming test, tail suspension test, locomotor activity in mice has been conducted. Brain superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione and lipid peroxidation were estimated biochemically. Brain monoamine oxidase (A and B) activity has been carried out by double beam spectrophotometer. All the values in this study indicated that the GFHh posses well specified antidepressant activity than EEHh due to higher concentration of flavonoids as confirmed by HPLC.
  S. Ajmal Khan , P.S. Lyla , B. Akbar John , C. Prasanna Kuamr , S. Murugan and K.C.A. Jalal
  Three teleost fishes, Stolephorus indicus, Stolephorus commersonnii and Terapon jarbua occurring in Parangipettai waters, were barcoded (sequenced) for 648 bp region of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene (COI) for phylogenetic analysis. All the possible barcode sequences of these three fishes were also extracted via FASTA format from NCBI (National Centre for Biotechnological Information). The genetic distances within the species was small compared to the genetic distances between the species i.e., the genetic distances within S. indicus was 7.67% and the average genetic distance between S. indicus and S. commersonnii was 9.11%. The genetic distance between the families Engraulidae and Terapontidae was 26.48% which was found higher than the genetic distance calculated within the family of Engraulidae (9.11%). This clearly showed that when organisms from distantly placed families are taken, the genetic distance increases. In the present study some phylogeographical signal was apparent in the data. In the neighbor-joining tree for all 10 sequences, two major groups were apparent: clade A comprising of Terapon jarbua and clade B comprising of Stolephorus species. The grouping pattern of clade A showed some phylogeographical signals. The barcode sequence of Lates calcarifer shuffled within other sequences during phylogram constructions was unambiguously placed as an out group in the phylogram. The clades after bootstrapping corresponded well with the expectations. We conclude that precise and accurate identification of Stolephorus indicus, S.commersonnii and Terapon jarbua could be performed using the barcode sequences of the mitochondrial DNA (in the COI gene) of these fishes.
  P. Uma Devi , D. Devipriya , S. Murugan , S. Selvi , S. Suja and P Chinnaswamy
  This study aims to measure Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC) and Total Peroxides (TP) in schizophrenia patients with positive, negative and cognitive symptoms using Ferric Reducing Activity of Plasma (FRAP) and evaluate its relations with oxidative stress. We measured the plasma total antioxidant potential and total peroxides in 60 schizophrenia patients and in 60 well-matched non-schizophrenic control subjects. The association between the total antioxidative-oxidative potential and the symptoms, severity of schizophrenia were studied. Total antioxidant capacity/total peroxide of the clinical samples was measured using latest spectrophotometric measurement method. Results showed that plasma TAC was found to be lower in patients with schizophrenia than those of controls. On the contrary, the patients had high total plasma peroxide levels. Oxidative Stress Index (OSI) values of the patients were significantly higher than those of controls (p<0.001). Plasma TAC of each schizophrenia symptoms were significantly lower than healthy controls (p<0.01 for patients with negative and cognitive symptoms and p<0.001 for patients with positive symptoms). When intragroup comparisons were performed, patients with positive symptoms had significantly very low plasma TAC levels (p<0.001) compared to other negative (p<0.01) and cognitive subtypes (p<0.01). Plasma TAC in schizophrenia patients was significantly and inversely correlated with symptom severity. This study indicates that schizophrenia is associated with increased oxidative stress, depleted antioxidant status in schizophrenia subjects and supplementation with more antioxidative supplements could be considered in treatment.
  S. Subakanmani , S. Murugan and P. Uma Devi
  Gold has been used as antidepressants in Indian traditional medicine. Hypericum species are used as alternative to conventional medicines for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. The present study focuses on synthesis and characterization of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) using Hypericum hookerianum and its antiparkinson like effect in haloperidol (1 mg kg–1; ip) induced swiss albino mice. The synthesized AuNPs were characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy; energy dispersive X-ray spectrum and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The parkinson induced mice were treated with ethanolic extract of H. hookerianum (EEHH) (400 mg kg–1) and H. hookerianum synthesized gold nanoparticles (HHGNps) (40 mg kg–1). Behavioral analyses of mice were examined by rota rod test, gait analysis, wire hang test and their neurobiochemical analysis (dopamine and glutamate) by spectrofluorimetry. In this study, the haloperidol induced group showed depleted dopamine and increased glutamate levels, whereas treated groups exhibited significantly restored values. Among the extracts, EEHH showed well pronounced antiparkinson like effect due to its neuroprotective flavonoids and surprisingly HHGNps treated groups showed greater antiparkinson like effect. The green synthesis of AuNPs showed promising effects for the modern therapeutic era especially with regard to parkinson’s disease.
  S. Murugan , S. Ajmal Khan , P.S. Lyla , C. Prasanna Kumar , K.C.A. Jalal , B.Y. Kamaruzzaman and B. Akbar John
  A detailed study on the length weight relationship of Mugil cephalus in Vellar estuary was conducted between January 2004 and December 2005. Statistical tests such as regression coefficient ‘b’ and ‘a’ tests were performed to compare the b values of males and females from the hypothetical value of 3. The b value of male (2.7658) differed significantly from the hypothetical value of 3 (t = -2.8586<0.05), the b value of female (2.8586) did not differ significantly from the hypothetical value (t = -1.0158>0.05). Values of both males and females were less than 3 which proved the negative allometry growth pattern.
  P. Uma Devi , S. Murugan , S. Suja , S. Selvi , P. Chinnaswamy and E. Vijayanand
  The aim of this study is to evaluate the antibacterial efficacy of Achyranthes bidentata against seven different microorganisms such as Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilin, Proteus vulgaris, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas species and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The values of zone of inhibition were measured and compared with standard values. All the extracts of root, stem, leaves and flowers showed high sensitive to Proteus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilin, Salmonella typhi, Klebsiella pneumoniae, moderate and less sensitivity to Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas species. The antiperoxidative effect of various parts of Achyranthes bidentata was also done. Goat liver was used as the lipid source. This in vitro evaluation was done by the measurement of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in the experimental mixtures of tissue homogenates. The results suggest that the ethanolic extracts of Achyranthes bidentata root and flowers possessed significant in vitro lipid peroxidation inhibiting activities, which is possibly attributed to its free radical scavenging properties. All the parts of plant extracts were subjected to qualitative analysis to find out phytoconstituents present in them. Results showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols, and steroids and the absence of saponins, glycosides and tannins.
  S. Selvi , P. Uma Devi , S. Suja , S. Murugan and P. Chinnaswamy
  The modulation of the mushroom used now-a-days in the field of medicine, is the way where this is partly achieved. Among these, the `antioxidants` which are capable of deactivating the free radicals follow either enzymatic or non-enzymatic pathways. The aim of this project is to incorporate the non-enzymatic antioxidant in fresh and dried form of powered samples of the oyster mushroom (P. leurotus florida) and milky mushroom (Calocybe indica). This study revealed the presence of non-enzymatic antioxidant in the selected samples and the striking feature of this work is to maximize the usage of mushrooms in the powdered form when there is certain unstable conditions for the usage of mushroom in the fresh form.
  P.M. Narayanan , S. Murugan , A.S. Eva , S.U. Devina and S. Kalidass
  Laccases (benzenediol oxygen oxidoreductases, EC are polyphenol oxidases (PPO) that catalyze the oxidation of various substituted phenolic compounds by using molecular oxygen as the electron acceptor. In the present study, Bacillus subtilis MTCC 2414 were employed for the production of laccase using guaiacol as a substrate under Submerged Fermentation (SmF) condition. Laccase was partially purified by salt precipitation method followed by dialysis. The synthetic dyes such as Orange 3R, Yellow GR and T-Blue were used for degradation studies using culture filtrate, free and immobilized laccases. The immobilized laccase obtained by entrapment method using sodium alginate was optimized and it exhibited maximum activity at pH 7 (321 U mL–1) and temperature 35°C (317 U mL–1). Similarly, free laccase was also optimized and the maximum activity was observed at pH 9 (309 U mL–1) and temperature 35°C (339 U mL–1). Surprisingly, Yellow GR dye was found to be highly degraded up to 81.72% by immobilized laccase when compared to free laccase (74.69% of T-Blue) and culture filtrate (72.16% of Orange 3R) respectively. The FTIR spectrum showed a spectrum peaks at 2110.12 c/m in control dye and degraded Yellow GR exposed peak at 3406.36 cm–1 which represents C-N stretching of aromatic amine group in dyes. Therefore, high degradation ability of laccase from B. subtilis MTCC 2414 makes them attractive catalyst for biotechnological applications.
  C. Prasanna Kumar , B. Akbar John , S. Ajmal Khan , P.S. Lyla , S. Murugan , M. Rozihan and K.C.A. Jalal
  An effort was made to assess the utility of 650 bp partial Cytochrome C oxidase subunit I (DNA barcode) gene in delineating the members of taxonomically ambiguous marine fin fishes (Family: Mugilidae). To address the issue we used all the 95 barcode sequences of Mugilidae family available at NCBI (National Centre for Biotechnological Information) along with the barcode data generated from Mugilidae fishes of Parangipettai coastal waters. The average GC content of Mugilidae was found to be 46.46%. Crenimugil crenilabis showed less GC content (44.55%) whereas Liza macrolepis showed high GC content (48.53%) among the mullet species studied. The phylogenetic and genetic distance data showed that Mugil platanus and M. liza represent the continuum of same species. Among the members of family Mugilidae, the genus Mugil might possibly contains more haplotype diversity as revealed by intra-species genetic distance data. Species within genera of Mugilidae family invariably clustered in single clade with high bootstrap value. We conclude that partial COI sequencing (barcoding) in identifying the members of the family and that way has resolved the taxonomic ambiguity among the members of the family Mugilidae.
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