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Articles by S. Melmed
Total Records ( 2 ) for S. Melmed
  G Vlotides , Y. H Chen , T Eigler , S. G Ren and S. Melmed

To investigate paracrine regulation of pituitary cell growth, we tested fibroblast growth factor (FGF) regulation of TtT/GF folliculostellate (FS) cells. FGF-2, and FGF-4 markedly induced cell proliferation, evidenced by induction of pituitary tumor transforming gene-1 (Pttg1) mRNA expression and percentage of cells in S phase. Signaling for FGF-2-induced FS cell proliferation was explored by specific pharmacological inhibition. A potent inhibitory effect on FGF-2 action was observed by blocking of Src tyrosine kinase with 4-amino-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-7-(t-butyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d] pyrimidine (≥0.1 µm), followed by protein kinase C (PKC) inhibition with GF109203X. Treatment with FGF-2 (30 ng/ml; 10 min) activated phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription-3, ERK, stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase, Akt, and focal adhesion kinase. Src inhibition with 4-amino-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-7-(t-butyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d] pyrimidine suppressed FGF-2-induced Akt and focal adhesion kinase, indicating effects downstream of FGF-2-induced Src activation. FGF-2 also markedly induced its own mRNA expression, peaking at 2–4 h, and this effect was suppressed by Src tyrosine kinase inhibition. The PKC inhibitor GF109203X abolished FGF-2 autoinduction, indicating PKC as the primary pathway involved in FGF-2 autoregulation in these cells. In addition to pituitary FGF-2 paracrine activity on hormonally active cells, these results show an autofeedback mechanism for FGF-2 in non-hormone-secreting pituitary FS cells, inducing cell growth and its own gene expression, and mediated by Src/PKC signaling.

  C Zhou , K Wawrowsky , S Bannykh , S Gutman and S. Melmed

Rb/E2F is dysregulated in murine and human pituitary tumors. Pituitary tumor transforming gene (PTTG1), a securin protein, is required for pituitary tumorigenesis, and PTTG1 deletion attenuates pituitary tumor development in Rb+/– mice. E2F1 and PTTG1 were concordantly overexpressed in 29 of 46 Rb+/– murine pituitary tissues and also in 45 of 80 human pituitary tumors (P < 0.05). E2F1 specifically bound the hPTTG1 promoter as assessed by chromatin immunoprecipitation and biotin-streptavidin pull-down assay, indicating that hPTTG1 may act as a direct E2F1 target. Transfection of E2F1 and its partner DP1 dose-dependently activated hPTTG1 transcription up to 3-fold in p53-devoid H1299 cells but not in p53-replete HCT116 cells. E2F1 overexpression enhanced endogenous hPTTG1 mRNA and protein levels up to 3-fold in H1299 cells. The presence of endogenous p53/p21 constrained the induction, whereas knocking down either p53 or p21 in HCT116 cells restored E2F1-induced hPTTG1 transactivation and expression. Moreover, suppressing Rb by small interfering RNA concordantly elevated E2F1 and hPTTG1 protein levels. In contrast, transfection of E2F1 small interfering RNA lowered hPTTG1 levels 24 h later in HCT116 than in H1299 cells, indicating that p53 delays E2F1 action on hPTTG1. These results elucidate a mechanism for abundant tumor hPTTG1 expression, whereby Rb inactivation releases E2F1 to induce hPTTG1. This signaling pathway may underlie the requirement of PTTG1 for pituitary tumorigenesis.

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