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Articles by S. Manikandan
Total Records ( 18 ) for S. Manikandan
  M. Santhana Ramasamy , P. Arumugam , S. Manikandan and A. Murugan
  Marine gastropod molluscs known as cone snails produce a complex array of over 50,000 peptides evolved for defense and prey capture. These venom peptides of predatory snails represent a rich combinatorial like library of evolutionary selected, neuro pharmacologically active. A major portion of the venom components are small, disulphide rich peptides that potently and specifically target and modulate components of the neuromuscular system, particularly ligand gated, voltage gated ion channels and transporters, making them a valuable source of new ligands for studying the role of these targets play in normal and disease physiology. Conotoxins are genetically encoded a propeptides which following expression and cleaved by specialized endoprotease to produce the mature venom peptide. A vast number of conuspeptides reduce neuropathic pain in animal models. Though several peptide drugs are in preclinical and clinical development for the treatment of severe pain often associated with diseases such as cancer, less than 1% of cono peptides are pharmacologically explored. This review focuses on the fundamental aspects and families of conotoxins in addition to some of the novel conopeptides acting at different types of Voltage gated and ligand gated ion channels which may lead to molecular and therapeutic targets.
  K. Parthiban , S. Manikandan and S. Ganesapandian
  Bacterial cellulose essentially a high value special chemical with specific application and usage. Some is produced commercially as a source of highly pure polymer so called cellulose I. Current uses of bacterial cellulose are slowly gaining publicity with applications ranging from food additives and paper binding agents. The bacterial cellulose also used as temporary skin substitute. Modern medical biotechnology has accepted artificial skin as valid prospect. It has successfully applied by dermatologist and plastic surgeons. This can applied for human second and third degree skin burn, skin graft, face peeling, infectious dermolysis, trophic venous and chronic ulcers. The current study also aims to use the bacterial cellulose for the healing of wounds with slight alterations. Generally cellulose from Acetobacter xylenum was used for wound healing, but in this study cellulose from Rhizobium sp. was used. The bacterial cellulose is modified by mixing with alginate and examined their wound healing activity in experimental mice.
  S. Manikandan , R. Prabhu , D. Sureshbabu and P. Vijayanand
  Geographically distributed and heterogeneous networks like internet with millions of entry points, users and transmission paths, depict a typical insecure network. The points where an organization’s private network interfaces with the internet are vulnerable to potential security attacks. Almost all organizations take care to protect their networks through firewalls, proxy servers and the like but recently even these so called secure networks are being subjected to numerous intrusions. The logs generated by the firewalls are so huge that it is even more difficult to find the source of attack in the event of a security breach. In this study, researchers present a progressive approach to strengthen the security of a private network beginning from the server level till the gateway interface to the internet. Routers in front of the firewall can be configured using context based access control in order to perform an initial security screening. Further, the design of a log analyser is discussed which details the process of collecting and analysing logs from firewalls and application gateways, in an efficient and less time consuming manner.
  K. Mahalakshmi , S. Manikandan , S. Nithyanantham , K.A. Sathiyaseelan and P. Sudhakar
  Problems in software engineering area can be solved mathematically. In this study, Support Vector Machine (SVM) are utilized to categorize Non-Functional Requirements (NFRs). The NFR-Classifiers are used to identify cross-cutting predominant framework toward disintegration found in necessities particular or early plan records are proposed. Optimization is used to acquire the best results under given circumstances. In order to improve the efficiency of SVM, Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) technique with Differential Evolution (DE) is used. The proposed technique improves the classification accuracy by 90.54% than existing techniques.
  S. Manikandan , S. Ganesapandian , Manoj Singh and A.K. Kumaraguru
  The distribution and spatial variation of seagrass in the coral reef ecosystem of the Gulf of Mannar was assisted with Line Intercept Transects (LIT) with help of SCUBA diving during January-March 2009. Overall percentage of seagrass was 63% among this 42% distributed towards the shoreward side and 21% towards the seaward side. There were 13 species of seagrass found, among this Cymodocea serrulata was dominant species and the least was Halophila stipulacea. The shoot density of seagrass varied between 63 and 13.4 shoot m-2 in the shoreward side, while in seaward side it was between 65.1 and 2.4 shoot m-2. Seagrass biomass was 179.2 g dwt m-2 at shoreward side and 63.62 g dwt m-2 at in seaward side. Distribution of seagrass along the islands of Gulf of Mannar varies in a very less proportion. But the spatial variation between the shoreward side and seaward side was very high. The present study reveal that seagrass distribution, diversity; shoot density and biomass were significantly higher in shoreward relative to seaward side. This study of seagrass in Gulf of Mannar would be the base line data to know the changes in seagrass population in future.
  S. Manikandan , N. Karthikeyan , K.S. Suganthi and K.S. Rajan
  Experiments were carried out with Fe2O3-water nanofluids to study possible enhancement in volumetric mass transfer coefficient for transfer of oxygen from air bubble to nanofluid, in an agitated, aerated bioreactor. The nanoparticles concentration was varied in the range of 0.022 to 0.065 wt.%, while the reactor was operated at three operating conditions viz. 200 rpm and 1.5 L min-1 of air flow, 100 rpm and 1.5 L min-1 of air flow and 200 rpm and 0.75 L min-1 of air flow. Nanoparticles were found to contribute to enhance oxygen transfer through ‘grazing effect’. An enhancement of 63% was observed for 0.065 wt.% Fe2O3-water operated at 200 rpm and 0.75 L min-1 air flow.
  V. Gayadhthri , K.S. Suganthi , S. Manikandan and K.S. Rajan
  Rod-shaped iron oxide nanoparticles were prepared by chemical co-precipitation route using ferric chloridehexahydrate (FeCl3•6H2O) and ferrous chloridetetrahydrate (FeCl2•4H2O) as precursors. Iron oxide nanofluids were prepared by dispersing rod shaped α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles in water. Experiments were carried out to study the influence of surfactants on the colloidal stability, particle size distribution of nanofluids. Nanofluid with Sodium Do-decyl Benzene Sulfonate (SDBS) as surfactant showed increase in thermal conductivity of about 14% when dispersed in water.
  S. Manikandan and M. Madheswaran
  Active Noise Control (ANC) involves an electro acoustic or electromechanical system that cancels the primary (unwanted) noise based on the principle of superposition. An anti-noise signal of equal amplitude and opposite phase is generated and combined with the primary noise, resulting in the cancellation of the noise. A fundamental problem to be considered in ANC systems is the requirement of highly precise control, temporal stability and reliability. To produce high degree of attenuation, the amplitude and phase of both the primary and the secondary noise must match with the close precision. The adaptive filters are used to control the noise and it has a linear input and output characteristic. If a transfer path of the noise has nonlinear characteristics it will be difficult for the filter to generate an optimal anti-noise. In this study, we propose a algorithm, delta rule algorithm which uses non linear output function. Delta rule is used for learning complex patterns in Artificial Neural Networks. We have implemented the adaptive filters using Least Mean Square (LMS) algorithm, Recursive Least Square (RLS) algorithm and Delta rule algorithm and compared the results.
  S. Manikandan , S. Ganesapandian , Manoj Singh , N. Sangeetha and A.K. Kumaraguru
  Nowadays, emergence of bacterial resistance poses a significant clinical problem. Hence, the aim of this study was to describe the current susceptibility patterns of Multi Drugs Resistant (MDR) strains of Urinary Tract Infections (UTI) isolates to current chemotherapeutic agents, as well as to find out antimicrobial characteristics in the extract of seaweeds against MDR. The extract of Padina tetrastromatica, Stocheospermum marginatum and Grateloupia lithophila exhibited strong activity against Non-MDR strains, whereas, the extract of Grateloupia lithophila only exhibited moderate activity against MDR strains. The extract of Caulerpa sp., Gracilaria corticata and Valaniopsis paachanima exhibited week antimicrobial activity. The extract of Grateloupia lithophila inhibited the growth of both MDR and Non-MDR Staphylococcus aureus. Moreover, extract of Grateloupia lithophila inhibited the growth of Non-MDR E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella. From our findings, the most potent antimicrobial seaweed extract was Grateloupia lithophila which showed maximum inhibitory activity against MDR and Non-MDR Staphylococcus aureus. This study recommends extracts of Grateloupia lithophila can also be used as antibacterial substance for treating multidrug resistant microbes causing acquired infections.
  S. Manikandan and M. Madheswaran
  Noise detection and reduction has become a primary concern in the fields where high speed and reliable communication is the essential criterion. It is therefore necessary to develop and build certain real time components, which can be made to work under the conditions of real-time environment where reliability and speed should be very high. In this field of Real-Time Digital Signal Processing numerous processors have been made by various companies like Texas Instrumentation, Motorola, Intel, etc. These devices offer an agreeable solution for this application. A comparable study has been made between some of the kits namely TMS320C5402 made by Texas Instrumentation. For the purpose of analysis a fundamental Active Noise filter design has been used as a test program and results are obtained from real time working conditions.
  N. Karthikeyan , S. Manikandan , M. Ganesh Kumar and S. Prabakaran
  Metal oxide materials are widely used as sensing material. Experimental studies have been conducted to explore the potential of fine metal oxide powders obtained by stirred bead milling for sensing of oxygen towards the thin film technique. Though the results indicate the potential of these materials for sensing, further optimization with respect to milling parameters and pelletizing are required to develop these as sensor materials.
  D. Uma , K. Vijayarekha and S. Manikandan
  Reactive power compensation and elimination of harmonics are necessary to provide high power quality for an AC system. The compensation of reactive power in an AC system using STATCOM to improve power quality is presented in this study. For the compensation of reactive power in power systems, Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM) is used which is a Flexible Alternating Current Transmission Systems (FACTS) device employing power electronic switches. STATCOM consists of a Voltage Source Converter (VSC). The VSC, which acts as a variable capacitive/inductive load is connected across the AC transmission line through a coupling reactor and this VSC improves the power factor by giving/consuming reactive power according to its output voltage and thus compensating the reactive power. The topology of VSC implemented here is a cascaded multilevel inverter employing bidirectional switches. By using a multilevel inverter instead of a voltage source inverter, the harmonics produced by the power electronic devices can be mitigated. The multilevel inverter topology suggested here is more advantageous than the conventional topologies. In this study, the simulation of suggested multilevel inverter for five level output and implementation of the same as STATCOM for reactive power compensation has been performed using MATLAB/Simulink and corresponding outputs obtained are reported.
  S. Manikandan , S. Ganesapandian , Manoj Singh , M. Anand and A.K. Kumaraguru
  Coral reef ecosystem in the Gulf of Mannar and Palk bay have been extensively damaged due to over fishing, sedimentation, dynamite fishing etc. Coral bleaching is an usual phenomena in summer and at extreme case the bleaching response is fatal to the coral. Bottom temperature during the months of April and May 2010 had significant change in both GoM and Palk bay and ranged between 31 to 31.9°C. Massive corals Porites solida, Porites lutea and Favia spp. and branch corals Acropora cytherea, A. intermedia, A. formosa, A. nobilis and Mantipora digitata were affected. Percentage of coral bleaching during April 2010 was 72 and 75% in GoM and Palk bay, further this level increased to 85.1 and 87.2%, respectively. Coral recovery was found during June to August 2010 in GoM and Palk Bay region. The phenomenon of coral bleaching has been taking place periodically all over the world. Therefore, in spite of the odds, the corals will resurge under the sea, which we need to protect and conserve for our benefit.
  A. Lourdu Caroline and S. Manikandan
  Data mining techniques have been used in medical research for many years and have been known to be effective. In order to solve such problems as long-waiting time, congestion and delayed patient care, faced by emergency departments, this study concentrates on building a hybrid methodology, combining data mining techniques such as association rules and classification trees. The methodology is applied to real-world emergency data collected from a hospital and is evaluated by comparing with other techniques. The methodology is expected to help physicians to make a faster and more accurate classification of chest pain diseases.
  S. Manikandan , S. Ganesapandian and K. Parthiban
  The distribution and zonation pattern of seagrass was assessed by SCUBA diving assisted with Global Positioning System (GPS) and 100 M transects at every 0.5 km, in the area between Mandapam and Thondi in the Palk Bay during March-July 2009. The study area has been divided into 3 regions, viz., Mandapam, Panaikulam and Thondi. Seagrass were distributed in about 175.2 km-2 coastlines in the study area. The percentage of seagrass distribution and species composition in Mandapam it was 63.87% in nearshore with 10 species, 43.56% in middle zone with 7 species and 26.27% in offshore with 4 species. Likewise in Panaikulam it was 24.17% in nearshore with 7 species, 53.31% in middle zone with 6 species and 20.14% in the offshore 5 species. Where as, in Thondi it was 75.41% in nearshore with 9 species, 54.28% in middle with 8 species and 31.42% in offshore with 7 species. Overall all the 14 species were observed among the Cymodocea serrulata was the most abundant species and the least was Enhalus acoroides in these study region. Shoot density and biomass of 14 species of seagrass and epiphytic biomass in different zonation were analyzed. This study gives clear cut idea about distribution and zonation of seagrass in Palk Bay region.
  S. Ganesapandian , S. Manikandan and A.K. Kumaraguru
  Marine litter has become one of the problematic concerns in the Gulf of Mannar. This study was aimed to survey and evaluate the composition, abundance, distribution and quantification of the types, amount, sources and impact of marine litter on the beach of the Gulf of Mannar region. This is first of its kind in India especially in the Gulf of Mannar. Quantification, source and impact of marine litter in the Gulf of Mannar, India were surveyed from March 2006 to February 2008. Maximum shoreline marine litter was noticed in May and June 2007 and the minimum was noticed in Feb. 2008. Occurrence of Shoreline marine litter during the Southwest monsoon period was the maximum and the cool winter period was the minimum. The maximum shoreline marine litter was 94-95 items of 5,409-6,588 g and the minimum shoreline marine litter was 42 items of 2,088 g. Eight percent of the total litter included only three major items, viz., Plastic (48%), polystyrene (18%) and cloth (15%). Fishing represented the largest source, Tourism/recreation was the second and Sewage Related Debris (SRD) was the third common source of marine litter. Stranded marine animals and impact on the ecosystems of coral reef, seagrass were also observed. The findings revealed the factors such as proximity of a given beach to a population center, pilgrim and Southwest monsoon wind which most dominantly affect the litter distribution in the Northern Gulf of Mannar coastline.
  S. Manikandan , S. Ganesapandian , N. Sangeetha and A.K. Kumaraguru
  Marine bacteria are producers of secondary metabolites in the harsh ocean. In the present study, marine bacteria were isolated from marine sponges in the Gulf of Mannar. The potential isolates were selected for 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The results of phylogenetic analyses revealed that isolate No. 3 was Stenotrophomonas sp., strain SMAKK001; isolate No. 6 was Bacillus strain SMAKK002 and isolate No. 8 was identified as Bacillus sp. strain SMAKK003. Antimicrobial assays were performed against various microorganisms with bacterial metabolites. Out of the 10 marine bacterial filtrates only four filtrates exhibited antimicrobial activity. Among them, the filtrate of Stenotrophomonas sp. strain SMAKK001, Bacillus subtilis strain SMAKK002 exhibited strong activity against gram positive and negative bacterial strains. Secondary metabolite of marine bacterial isolates SMAKK001, SMAKK002 and SMAKK003 showed considerable inhibitory activity against pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Inhibitory activity was observed against important pathogenic species such as MDR Staphylococcus sp., MDR Pseudomonas sp. and MDR Klebsiella sp. which opens up interesting avenues in the search for novel compounds against multidrug-resistant pathogenic bacteria. The present study revealed that marine bacterial metabolites used against potential new anti-MDR strains.
  Manoj Singh , S. Manikandan and A.K. Kumaraguru
  The convergence of nanotechnology and biomedical sciences opens the possibility for a wide variety of biological research topics and medical uses at the molecular and cellular level. Current and future research achievements in nanobiotechnology could ultimately lead to the development of revolutionary new modalities of biomolecular manufacturing, early diagnostics, medical treatment and disease prevention beyond the cellular level to that of individual proteins, the building blocks of the life process. This study attempts to explain the diversity of the field, starting with the history of nanotechnology, the properties of the nanoparticle, various strategies of synthesis, the various advantages and disadvantages of different methods and finally ends with its application.
 
 
 
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