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Articles by S. M. Nelson
Total Records ( 2 ) for S. M. Nelson
  S. M. Nelson , D. J. Freeman , N. Sattar and R. S. Lindsay
  Aim  Maternal diabetes is associated with polycythaemia and thrombocytopaenia in the offspring; however, the relationship with fetal hormones is unknown. We assessed the association of maternal glycaemic control, birthweight and fetal hormones with haematological indices in pregnancies complicated by maternal diabetes.

Methods  Prospective study using cord blood samples from 89 offspring of mothers with Type 1 diabetes (OT1DM) and 34 control offspring. Full blood count, insulin, leptin, adiponectin, cortisol, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3, intercellular adhesion molecule 1 and C-reactive protein were measured in the umbilical vein at birth.

Results  Haematocrit was higher in OT1DM (OT1DM 0.55 ± 0.17%, control offspring 0.51 ± 0.06%; P = 0.02). The difference in platelets count was not statistically significant [OT1DM 214 x 109/l (173-259); control offspring 253 x 109/l (180-310), P = 0.06]. Maternal glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) showed a moderate positive correlation with fetal haematocrit (r = 0.30, P = 0.02). Cord platelet counts were negatively associated with birthweight in OT1DM (r = −0.27, P = 0.01). In multivariate models, cord insulin was not associated with haematocrit, but cord leptin was negatively associated with platelets in control offspring (P < 0.001) and OT1DM (P = 0.046), with additional contributions from male sex (P = 0.08) in OT1DM, and IGF-1 (P = 0.04) and insulin (P = 0.04) in control offspring.

Conclusions  Fetal haematocrit is increased in response to diabetes in pregnancy and is related to maternal glycaemic control. Fetal hyperinsulinism, hyperleptinaemia or macrosomia, although readily demonstrable in this cohort, do not emerge as determinants of raised fetal haematocrit in OT1DM. Both increased birthweight and fetal leptin are negatively associated with platelet count.

  R. A. Maitland , P. T. Seed , A. L. Briley , M. Homsy , S. Thomas , D. Pasupathy , S. C. Robson , S. M. Nelson , N. Sattar and L. Poston


To examine the prediction of gestational diabetes in obese women using routine clinical measures and measurement of biomarkers related to insulin resistance in the early second trimester.


A total of 117 obese pregnant women participating in a pilot trial of a complex intervention of dietary advice and physical activity were studied. Blood samples were obtained at recruitment (15+0-17+6 weeks' gestation) and demographic, clinical history and anthropometric measures recorded. The biomarkers analysed were plasma lipids (HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, ferritin, fructosamine, insulin, adiponectin, tissue plasminogen activator, interleukin-6, visfatin and leptin. Univariate and logistic regression analyses were performed to determine independent predictors and area under the receiver-operating curve was calculated for the model.


Of the 106 participants included in the analysis, 29 (27.4%) developed gestational diabetes. Participants with gestational diabetes were older (= 0.002), more often of parity ≥ 2, had higher systolic (= 0.02) and diastolic blood pressure (= 0.02) and were more likely to be black (= 0.009). Amongst the blood biomarkers measured, plasma adiponectin alone remained independently associated with gestational diabetes in adjusted models (= 0.002). The area under the receiver-operating curve for clinical factors alone (0.760) increased significantly (area under the curve 0.834, chi-square statistic (1) = 4.00, = 0.046) with the addition of adiponectin.


A combination of routinely measured clinical factors and adiponectin measured in the early second trimester in obese women may provide a useful approach to the prediction of gestational diabetes. Validation in a large prospective study is required to determine the usefulness of this algorithm in clinical practice. (Clinical Trial Registry No: ISRCTN89971375)

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