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Articles by S. Kumar
Total Records ( 18 ) for S. Kumar
  Supradip Saha , N. K. Hedau , S. Kumar , V. Mahajan and H. S. Gupta
  Screening of natural biodiversity for the variation in quality traits is of prime importance for quality-breeding programmes. The objective of this investigation was to select candidate accession of hot pepper having high concentrations of ascorbic acid, capsaicin, β-carotene, and total phenols for use as parents in breeding for these compounds. Forty-two accessions of pepper (Capsicum annuum) were field grown and their mature fruits were analysed for their functional and nutritional composition. Wide variations were observed in most of the measurements, e.g. ascorbic acid (25-217mg per 100g), total phenolics (38.4-188.1mg per 100g catechol eq.), and capsaicin (0.08-0.67%), suggesting that there are considerable levels of genetic diversity. Across all accessions the concentration of ascorbic acid was negatively correlated with that of β-carotene (r=-0.33, p <0.05). Concentrations of L-ascorbic acid were significantly greater in VLC 22-I-2-1, VLC-29-II-1-1, VLC-30-I-1, and Janjeera Mirch compared with other accessions analysed. Total capsaicin concentrations were greatest (0.67%) in VLC-30-II-1 and lowest (0.08%) in VLC-32-3. Four factors were computed by principal-component analysis to explain 67% of the variation in the traits. The great variability for these phytochemicals suggests that these selected accessions may be useful as parents in breeding programmes to produce fruits with value-added traits.
  S. Kumar , S.P. Dixit , N.K. Verma , D.K. Singh , A. Pande , S. Kumar , R. Chander and L.B. Singh
  Problem statement: Gohilwari breed of goat is a multipurpose goat mainly for milk and meat purposes and best suited in its harsh climatic condition. This breed is inadequately characterized till now at DNA level. So the present study was undertaken for population genetic analysis at molecular level to exploit the breed for planning sustainable improvement, conservation and utilization, which subsequently can improve the livelihood of its stake holders. Approach: The experiment was conducted on 50 genomic DNA samples of unrelated goat using 25 microsatellite markers selected from the list suggested by International Society for Animal Genetics (ISAG) and FAO’s (DAD-IS). Results: All of the 25 microsatellites were well amplified. The observed number of alleles detected per locus ranged from 4-24 with an overall mean of 10.12±5.46. Overall mean observed heterozygosity of 0.505 was lower than the overall mean expected heterozygosity of 0.684. Most of the loci showed the heterozygote deficit as also depicted by Fis value. There was substantial genetic variation and polymorphism across studied loci in the Gohilwari breed of goat. And this population was not in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium at most of the studied loci. This population was also receiving new genetic materials through introduction of immigrants. Conclusion: The strong inference that the Gohilwari breed of goat has not undergone bottleneck is also important for goat breeders and conservationists, as it suggests that any unique alleles present in this breed may not have been lost. Therefore, it can be recommended that within-breed diversity is actively maintained to enable these extensively unmanaged stocks to adapt to future demands and conditions and there is ample scope for further improvement in its productivity through appropriate breeding strategies. Though, microsatellites are neutral to selection with Ewens-Watterson test for neutrality some microsatellites were found not neutral or linked to some selective trait that must be further investigated for association to selective traits.
  S. Kharb , S. Kumar and Z.S. Kundu
  Osteosarcoma is the most common primary tumor of bone, occur mainly during childhood and adolescence. No reports are available in literature where serum folate and vitamin B12 have been assessed in osteosarcoma patients. Hence, the present study was planned to analyze status of folate and vitamin B12 in thirty osteosarcoma patients and compare it with thirty controls (subjects with musculoskeletal pain). Serum calcium, alkaline phosphatase levels were higher and phosphorus levels were comparable in osteosarcoma patients as compared to controls. Serum folate levels were significantly raised in osteosarcoma patients as compared to controls (p<0.001). Serum vitamin B12 levels were significantly lowered in osteosarcoma patients as compared to controls (p<0.001). Folate-mediated one-carbon metabolism (FOCM) is unequivocally linked to multiple health outcomes, including birth defects, several types of cancer and possibly cardiovascular disease and cognitive function. Tumors are known to up regulate FRα modulating the folate uptake in serum. Vitamin B12 diminishes osteoblastic activity and lowered serum vitamin B12 levels are possibly due to increased metabolic demand of the tumor. The present study suggests that these parameters can serve as useful markers for diagnosis and follow up of disease.
  P. Prashant Chaudhary , S. Kumar Sirohi and S. Kumar
  The present study has been planned to standardize a simple and effective method for the isolation of good quality as well as quantity of methanogenic DNA in total genomic DNA from rumen liquor of Bubalus bubalis. Methanogens are a diverse group of organisms found in anaerobic environments such as anaerobic sludge digester, wet wood of trees, sewage, rumen, black mud, black sea sediments , etc which utilize carbon dioxide and hydrogen and produce methane. Methanogens exhibit great diversity in cell envelopes, ranging from simple, non rigid surface layers consisting of protein or glycoprotein subunits to a rigid “pseudomurein” sacculus, analogous to eubacterial murein. Methanogens having different chemical composition of cell wall and known for tough cell wall which is difficult break to isolate good quality and quantity of genomic DNA. Various DNA extraction methodologies have been used but problems are most often encountered in terms of low DNA yields and quality of DNA for further application. Method of DNA isolation based on guanidine thiocynate lysis buffer was compared with commonly used phenol chloroform method and commercial kit based methods, results showed that modified protocol generated high molecular weight genomic DNA while the other two methods resulted in considerable DNA degradation. Further, the isolated genomic DNA was tested for downstream applications such as PCR and Real-Time PCR using methanogens specific primers. In both the cases, the genomic DNA isolated by our protocol was comparatively better than rest of two protocols tested.
  M. V. Chittari , P. McTernan , N. Bawazeer , K. Constantinides , M. Ciotola , J. P. O`Hare , S. Kumar and A. Ceriello
  Aim  In diabetes, endothelial dysfunction and an altered retinal blood flow have been reported and precede overt macrovascular and microvascular disease. Furthermore, an association between postprandial hyperglycaemia, retinopathy and cardiovascular disease has been observed.

Methods  Endothelial function and retinal vascular reactivity have been measured in baseline conditions in 10 healthy control subjects and 21 patients with Type 2 diabetes. In the patients with Type 2 diabetes, endothelial function and retinal vascular reactivity have been also measured every hour, for 4 h, during an oral glucose tolerance test. Endothelial function has been evaluated by measuring flow-mediated vasodilation of the brachial artery, while retinal vascular reactivity has been measured using a retinal vessel analyser, during a flicker.

Results  At 1 and 2 h after glucose ingestion, endothelial function decreased (P < 0.05), while retinal vascular reactivity increased, even at 3 h (P < 0.05), vs. the baseline values.

Conclusion  Our data highlight that acute hyperglycaemia impacts on endothelial function simultaneously at both macrovascular and at microvascular levels, inducing functional change, which could contribute towards explaining the clinical evidence of a strong association between postprandial hyperglycaemia, cardiovascular disease and retinopathy.

  S. D. Rees , M. Islam , M. Z. I. Hydrie , B. Chaudhary , S. Bellary , S. Hashmi , J. P. O`Hare , S. Kumar , D. K. Sanghera , N. Chaturvedi , A. H. Barnett , A. S. Shera , M. N. Weedon , A. Basit , T. M. Frayling , M. A. Kelly and T. H. Jafar
  Aims  A common variant, rs9939609, in the FTO (fat mass and obesity) gene is associated with adiposity in Europeans, explaining its relationship with diabetes. However, data are inconsistent in South Asians. Our aim was to investigate the association of the FTO rs9939609 variant with obesity, obesity-related traits and Type 2 diabetes in South Asian individuals, and to use meta-analyses to attempt to clarify to what extent BMI influences the association of FTO variants with diabetes in South Asians.

Methods  We analysed rs9939609 in two studies of Pakistani individuals: 1666 adults aged ≥ 40 years from the Karachi population-based Control of Blood Pressure and Risk Attenuation (COBRA) study and 2745 individuals of Punjabi ancestry who were part of a Type 2 diabetes case-control study (UK Asian Diabetes Study/Diabetes Genetics in Pakistan; UKADS/DGP). The main outcomes were BMI, waist circumference and diabetes. Regression analyses were performed to determine associations between FTO alleles and outcomes. Summary estimates were combined in a meta-analysis of 8091 South Asian individuals (3919 patients with Type 2 diabetes and 4172 control subjects), including those from two previous studies.

Results  In the 4411 Pakistani individuals from this study, the age-, sex- and diabetes-adjusted association of FTO variant rs9939609 with BMI was 0.45 (95% CI 0.24-0.67) kg/m2 per A-allele (= 3.0 x 10−5) and with waist circumference was 0.88 (95% CI 0.36-1.41) cm per A-allele (= 0.001). The A-allele (30% frequency) was also significantly associated with Type 2 diabetes [per A-allele odds ratio (95% CI) 1.18 (1.07-1.30); = 0.0009]. A meta-analysis of four South Asian studies with 8091 subjects showed that the FTO A-allele predisposes to Type 2 diabetes [1.22 (95% CI 1.14-1.31); = 1.07 x 10-8] even after adjusting for BMI [1.18 (95% CI 1.10-1.27); = 1.02 x 10-5] or waist circumference [1.18 (95% CI 1.10-1.27); = 3.97 x 10−5].

Conclusions  The strong association between FTO genotype and BMI and waist circumference in South Asians is similar to that observed in Europeans. In contrast, the strong association of FTO genotype with diabetes is only partly accounted for by BMI.

  A.K. Taku , M.M. Beigh , B. Kumar , S. Kumar and M.A. Bhat
  Out of 262 swab samples from feet of clinically footrot affected sheep from Jammu and Kashmir, 135 (52.0%) detected positive for Dichelobacter nodosus by 16S rRNA gene specific PCR. Out of these135 positive samples, 82 (61.74%) tested positive for intA gene carried by virulent strains. A mulplex PCR for simultaneous detection and virulence characterization of D. nodosus in clinical samples was therefore devised. The test detected 77 (57.03%) samples positive for virulent D. nodosus. The results were comparable and the success of the multiplex PCR was established. Out of 30 randomly selected isolates subjected to gelatin gel test, 24 isolates with intA gene produced thermostable protease while six isolates without intA gene revealed the production of thermolabile protease. This indicated a good co-relation between presence of intA gene and gelatine gel test in determination of the D. nodosus virulence.
  S. Kumar , Mariyamni Bt. Awang , Ghulam Abbas and Shuaib Ahmed Kalwar
  In Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer (ASP) flooding, mobility control is one of the important factors for improving tertiary oil recovery. It is achieved by using polymeric mobility control agent such as partial hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM). However, polymer is highly degradable when subjected to high temperature; high salinity and high shear rates. These limitations of polymer adversely restrict the extension of ASP in such reservoirs conditions. In order to overcome these limitations, Wormlike Micellar (WLM) solution can be studied as a potential alternative. This study presents a review on application of WLM solution as mobility control agent for chemical EOR. It discusses the current limitations with existing polymers, comparison between WLM and polymerr.
  N. Verma , H. Kaur and S. Kumar
  Rapid urbanization of our world has lead to accumulation of enormous number of contaminants in our environment. Heavy metals hold a superlative position in that list and are responsible of contaminating soil, water and all food stuffs taken up by the humans. The presented work was an effort to develop a biopolymer membrane which efficiently bonded and removed heavy metals like lead from the water sample. It was also found to be a very good matrix for enzyme immobilization in developing heavy metal biosensor. The membrane bonded to the positively charged heavy metal cations and lead to their preconcentration from the samples. The synthesized membrane was a hybrid of hydrosol-gel and alginate in a ratio which lead to the formation of a thin film that acted as the preconcentration medium in the study. It had been found to be an efficient electron transfer facilitator for application in electrochemical biosensor.
  P. Kumar , N. P. Shah , A. Singhal , D. S. Chauhan , V. M. Katoch , S. Mittal , S. Kumar , M. K. Singh , S. Datta Gupta and H. K. Prasad
  Endometrial biopsy samples derived from 393 patients with assorted gynecological complaints were investigated for mycobacterial infection. By employment of four different techniques, mycobacterial pathogens were detected irrespective of the nature/type of clinical complaint. Mycobacterium tuberculosis was the predominant pathogen detected among the samples investigated.
  Z. A. Siddiqi , R. Arif , S. Kumar and Md. Khalid
 

The 18-member unsymmetrical dinucleating Shiff-base decaaza [N10] macrocyclic ligand, 2,8,11,17-tetramethyl-3,5,7,12,14,16-hexaphenyl-[1,3,5,7,9,10,12,14,16,18] decaazaoctadeca-2,8,11,17-tetraene dihydroperchlorate (L · 2HClO4) was obtained as a cream colored solid from reaction of N-acetylaniline and hydrazine in the presence of HClO4 followed by cyclization (capping) using aniline and excess HCHO in methanol at RT. Reactions of L · 2HClO4 with MCl2 and [M(Ph3P)2Cl2] afforded air stable complexes, M2LCl4(ClO4)2 (M = Co, Ni, Cu, Zn or Cd). The compounds have been characterized by physico-chemical and spectroscopic studies. FAB-Mass spectral data support bimetallic coordination by the macrocycle. IR studies confirm coordination/encapsulation of metal ions involving unsymmetrical aza sites. Magnetic susceptibility and UV-Visible data indicate a low-spin, five-coordinate geometry for Co(II) and Ni(II) complexes. The anisotropic EPR signals (g|| > g) for Cu2+ complex suggest an axial type tetragonality. Molecular model computations have been employed for a theoretical perspective of the ligand and complexes. The important bond lengths and bond angles have been estimated using CS Chem-3D software. The ionic association constant (K1) and thermodynamic free energy change (ΔG) were evaluated from the conductometric data of the complexes, which indicate presence of a strong ion-pair even in solution. Cyclic voltametric studies on solutions of M2LCl4(ClO4)2 (M = Co, Ni or Cu) in DMSO indicate reversible and quasi-reversible redox couples.

  S. Kumar , N.P. Sahu and A.K. Pal
  A 60 days feeding trial was conducted to delineate the effect of both gelatinized (G) and non-gelatinized (NG) corn supplemented with exogenous microbial α-amylase (0, 50, 100 and 150 mg kg-1) at either sub-optimal (28%) or optimal (35%) crude protein (CP) level on muscle protein, muscle protein/DNA ratio and DNA/muscle mass (wet wt.) ratio of Labeo rohita fingerlings. Three hundred sixty fingerlings (av. wt. 10±0.15 g) were randomly distributed in 12 treatment groups with each of two replicates. The muscle protein and muscle protein/DNA ratio of NG corn fed groups was significantly higher (p<0.05) than the G corn fed groups, whereas reverse trend was found for DNA/muscle mass (wet wt.) ratio. There was no significant effect on muscle protein, muscle protein/DNA ratio and DNA/muscle mass (wet wt.) ratio at both 28% and 35% CP. Supplementation of α-amylase at 50 mg kg -1 increased the muscle protein and muscle protein/DNA ratio beyond which no significant changes were observed but DNA/muscle mass (wet wt.) ratio was significantly higher in non α-amylase supplemented group. Hence it concludes that NG corn with 50 mg α-amylase kg -1 at 28% CP is optimum in the diet of L. rohita fingerling to improve muscle protein, muscle protein/ DNA ratio and DNA/ muscle mass (wet weight) ratio.
  Azizunnesa , B.C. Sutradhar , M. Hasanuzzaman , M.A.K. Azad and S. Kumar
  The study was conducted at dairy and cattle improvement farm, Hathazari, Chittagong for a period of one year. A total of 82 dairy cows were selected during the period from June 03-July 04 and their information regarding milk production upto 180 days, productive and other reproductive parameters were recorded from farm record book. Average milk production (459.09 ± 138.09 liter), calving interval (634.59 ± 223.92 days), age at puberty (1205.02 ± 313.80 days), service per conception (1.88 ± 1.09), gestation length (273.08 ± 7.48 days) and birth weight of fetuses (18.78 ± 34 kg) were observed. The minimum and maximum value of these results was also observed. The highest milk production (487.54 ± 109.73 liter) was found in the cows with parity number 4-8 and the second highest (456.84 ± 169.58 liter) was found with the parity number 2 and the lowest milk production (445.79 ± 86.64 liter) was found with the parity number 3. The average production of milk was observed (473.44 ± 134.15 liter) in the cows required interval between 370-590 days and 444.74 ± 142.11 liter found in the cows required 591-1365 days. When the range of age at puberty was 1186-2270 days and 665-1185 days the average production of milk was 468.56 ± 161.92 liter and 450.50 ± 113.56 liter was observed, respectively. Comparatively more milk production was found (461.52 ± 151.89 liter) in cows required less number of services per conception was 1-2 than the cows required more number of services per conception was 3-6 and their milk production was 452.84 ± 96.60 liter. There was no any significance difference of production of milk among the different variables.
  S.M. Shrivastava , S. Kumar and M. Chaudhary
  Present study attempts to determine antimicrobial efficacy of Ampucare stored at different conditions by time kill curve studies against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus vulgaris. In all storage conditions, a rapid killing time was achieved by Ampucare. Bacterial count was less than 3 Log10 cfu mL-1 after 6 h of study in all organisms under study. No deviation in pattern of bacterial inhibition was found in all conditions of storage of Ampucare. There was no re growth reported even after exposure for longer time under influence of Ampucare. In conclusion, Ampucare has good antimicrobial activity under all storage conditions of study against E. coli, S. aureus, P. vulgaris and K. pneumoniae.
  K. Gill , A.K. Singh , S. Kumar , B. Mishra , V. Kapoor , S.N. Das , R.K. Somvanshi and S. Dey
  Ginger has been used in traditional Indian and Chinese medicine and is effective for a wide range of ailments including diarrhea, respiratory disorders, inflammatory diseases, arthritis etc. Recent studies have shown the role of ginger extract in the modulation of biochemical pathways involved in chronic inflammation and have thus provided evidences for its anti-inflammatory property. The aim of the study was to identify and purify a novel protein from ginger rhizomes (Zingiber officinales), of Zingiberaceae family possessing anti-fungal, anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative properties as elicited using antibiotic diffusion method, surface plasmon resonance, spectrophotometric analysis and flow cytometry, respectively. The purified protein G-24 having molecular mass of 24 kD exhibited a potent anti-fungal activity against the mycelial growth in Fusarium exysporum and Candida albicans. It had shown 60% inhibition of human oral cancer cell line (KB cells) at 10 μM concentration. It inhibited inflammatory enzymes; lipooxygenase (LOX) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) with KD values of 2.04 μM and 2.74 nM, respectively. This confirmed the anti-inflammatory property of G-24.Thus, concluded that the G-24 protein possessed multiple functions viz. antifungal, anti-inflammation and antiproliferation.
  A.N. Cloud , S. Kumar , M. Kavdia , H.H. Abu-Safe and M.H. Gordon
  Bulk alumina has been shown to exhibit reduced protein adsorption, a property that can be exploited for developing alumina-coated surgical instruments and devices. Alpha alumina thin films were deposited on surgical stainless steel substrates to investigate the adsorption of a model protein (BSA, bovine serum albumin). The films were deposited at 480 °C by AC inverted cylindrical magnetron sputtering. Films were obtained at 6 kW and 50% oxygen partial pressure by volume. The presence of alpha-phase alumina has been shown by transmission electron microscopy. Results indicate that there was a 50% reduction in protein adsorption for samples with the alumina coating compared to those with no coating.
  S.M. Shrivastava , S. Kumar and M. Chaudhary
  The present study is undertaken to evaluate the antimicrobial properties of a new Fixed Dose Combination (FDC) of Ofloxacin Ornidazole for infusion against some aerobic bacteria in comparison with Ofloxacin and Ornidazole individually. Antibiotic Susceptibility Test (AST) and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of FDC of Ofloxacin Ornidazole, Ofloxacin and Ornidazole for P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, E. coli, K. pneumoniae, S. epidermis and MRSA were determined by disc method and broth micro dilution method. In Antimicrobial Susceptibility Test, lytic zone of combination was found to be more than Ofloxacin or Ornidazole alone in all microbial strains under study. The MIC value of FDC of Ofloxacin Ornidazole was found to be higher than both Ofloxacin and Ornidazole. The data suggests that fixed dose combination of Ofloxacin and Ornidazole can be a good option for use in mixed microbial infection of aerobic bacteria, anaerobic bacteria and pathogenic protozoans.
  N. Mohammed , S. Solanki , T. Bhati , P. Nathawat , S.K. Sharma , S. Kumar , A. Joshi , P.K. Pilania , L.N. Sankhala , M. Mathur , A. Ahuja , N. Kataria and A.K. Kataria
  The present study was carried out on 17 positive cases (horses) of colic. Two cases died during the treatment. Ten apparently healthy equines (horses) were also included in the study which constituted control group. Clinico-physiological observations included clinical signs, temperature, pulse, respiratory rate per min and colour of mucosa and were noted daily before start of treatment. Laboratory diagnosis of equine colic was done by determining haematological parameters. Blood samples from control group as well as equines suffering from colic were subjected to haematological examinations comprising of haemoglobin, packed cell volume, total erythrocyte count, total leucocyte count, differential leucocyte count and platelet count. There was great variation in duration and severity of clinical manifestations. In all the cases abdominal pain, loss of appetite, depression and change in colour of mucous membrane from light pink to dark pink was present. Pulse rate, respiration rate and capillary refill time were increased highly significantly (p<0.01) than the mean values from control group but temperature was within normal range and non-significantly (p>0.05) changed. In present study haemoglobin, PCV and TEC counts was increased significantly (p<0.05) on 1st day (before treatment) in comparison to healthy control group and after-treatment group. There was non significant (p>0.05) difference in their values between control group and after treatment group. Pattern of variation observed in the present study regarding haematological parameters of colicky cases can contribute in generating data for future studies and in laboratory diagnosis.
 
 
 
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