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Articles by S. Khan
Total Records ( 5 ) for S. Khan
  A. H. Siddiqi , S. Khan and S. Rehman
  Most of the renewable energy sources have direct or indirect link with the sun. Wind is also a form of solar energy. It is initiated by uneven heating of the atmospheric air by the sun, affected from the topography and surface roughness of the earth’s surface and rotation of the earth. The earth’s terrain, water surfaces and vegetation cover modifies wind flow patterns. Wind energy or wind power terms describe the process by which the wind is used to generate mechanical energy or electricity. In view of this, there has been several studies of wind speed characteristics in different parts of the world using Weibull distribution and Fourier method of time series analysis. Wavelet methods invented in mid-eighties have attracted attention of Engineers, Physicists, Computer Scientists and Mathematicians alike for applications purposes in diverse fields. So much so that two prominent workers of this field Coifman and Daubechies have been given prestigious awards of U.S.A. in the year 2000 for their contribution in this field. In the present study we apply wavelet methods and related software to study wind speed data of certain places in Saudi Arabia.
  K. Dasgupta , S. Khan and N. A. Ross
  Aims  To assess sex-specific associations of educational and income levels with Type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Methods  Logistic regression analyses (Canadian Community Health Survey, cross-sectional) adjusted for ethnicity, immigration, urban/rural, overweight/obesity, physical inactivity, smoking, chronic conditions and regular physician.

Results  Compared to women with some post-secondary education, Type 2 diabetes was more likely in both high school graduates without post-secondary education [odds ratio (OR) 1.27, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07-1.51] and high school non-completers (OR 1.73, 95% CI 1.47-2.04); among men, definitive conclusions in high school graduates without post-secondary education could not be drawn (OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.78-1.12), but Type 2 diabetes was more likely in high school non-completers (OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.08-1.48). Compared to women with the highest income, Type 2 diabetes was three times more likely in the lowest income group (OR 2.90, 95% CI 2.25-3.73), 2.53 times more likely in the low middle income group (OR 2.53, 95% CI 1.98-3.24) and 55% more likely in the high middle income group (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.20-2.01). Among men, Type 2 diabetes was approximately 40% more likely in both the lowest (OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.10-1.80) and low middle income groups (OR 1.39, 95% CI 1.12-1.71); definitive conclusions in the high middle income group could not be drawn (OR 1.05, 95% CI 0.87-1.28).

Conclusions  In women, Type 2 diabetes increased monotonically with lower educational and income levels; in men, Type 2 diabetes was concentrated in the least educated and least affluent. Our findings support the need for policies and practices that lower diabetes risk among the most disadvantaged women and men and moderately disadvantaged women.

  A. Shirwaikar , Y. Kamariya , B. Patel , S. Nanda , V. Parmar and S. Khan
  The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of methanol extract of the fruits of Morinda citrifolia Linn., on osteoporosis induced by ovariectomy in female albino rats at two different dose levels of 500 and 750 mg/kg/day. Healthy female albino rats in the age group of 90 days were selected and randomized into five groups of six animals each. Group 1 was sham operated and served as control while all the remaining groups were ovariectomized. Group 2 was fed with an equivolume of saline and served as ovariectomized control. Group 3 was orally treated with standard Raloxifene (5.4 mg kg-1) whereas the methanol extract of Morinda citrifolia (500 and 750 mg kg-1) was administered to the groups 4 and 5. The findings assessed on the basis of biomechanical, biochemical and histopathological parameters, showed that the methanol extract significantly reduced bone loss, as evidenced by a reduction in Tartrate Resistant Acid Phosphatase (TRAP) and urine Hydroxyproline (Hp) levels while simultaneously increasing bone formation [high serum Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) levels], thereby restoring bone mineralization. The restoration of bone strength was confirmed by biomechanical parameters viz., the three point bending of tibia, load testing of femoral head and compression of IV lumbar vertebra and it was further endorsed by histopathological findings i.e., bone microarchitecture. The extract significantly increased the osteoblastic activity on one hand while on the other it retarded the osteoclastic function thereby contributing to a positive bone balance and hence enhanced mineralization.
  M. A. S. Jewel , M. A. Affan and S. Khan
  Cyanobacterial bloom and fish mortality in ponds and lakes are common in Bangladesh but the relationship between the two has been rarely studied. In April 2002, mass mortality of fishes occurred in a farmer’s pond of Mymensingh, Bangladesh. At the time of fish kill, a massive bloom of cyanobacteria (210.5×103 cells ml‾1) was found in the pond. Microscopic study showed the dominance of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (L.) Ralfs and Microcystis aeruginosa, Kütz representing 60.91 and 33.98% of the total phytoplankton population, respectively. Fish species affected were silver carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (Valenciennes), tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (L.), catla Catla catla (Hamilton Buchanon) and common carp Cyprinus carpio (L.) and among these silver carp, tilapia and catla were severely affected. The gills of dead fishes were pale-white and the microscopic analysis of the gill squashed water showed the presence of large number of A. flos-aquae and M. aeruginosa cells. Gut content analysis of dead silver carp, tilapia and catla revealed the presence of 49.12, 43.5 and 19.35% A. flos-aquae and 30.37, 38.32 and 9.75% M. aeruginosa, respectively among the total consumed phytoplankton. On the day of fish mortality, high concentration of PO4-P (9.5 mg l‾1), high water temperature (310C) and low dissolved oxygen concentration (0.95 mg l‾1) were found. The fish mortality was possibly caused either by oxygen deficiency or toxins secreted by cyanobacteria or by combination of both.
  A. Joshi , N. Kataria , S. Sharma , A. Sharma , S. Arora , Abhimanu , R. Maan , S. Asopa , N. Arya , S. Khan and A.K. Kataria
  Present investigation was launched to detect oxidative stress in pregnant and non-pregnant Murrah buffaloes during extreme ambiences. Serum oxidase and peroxidase profiling was used as a tool to detect oxidative stress. Blood samples of apparently healthy adult female Murrah buffaloes were collected to harvest sera during extreme hot cold and moderate ambiences. Moderate mean value of serum oxidase was 50.32±1.21 UL-1 and of serum peroxidase was 49.51±1.11 mUL-1. Extreme hot and cold ambiences resulted into a significant (p≤0.05) rise in the activities of serum oxidase and peroxidase. Animals were classified as non pregnant milch, pregnant milch and pregnant dry and activities of both the enzymes were compared. It was observed that mean values of both the enzymes in non-pregnant milch, pregnant milch and pregnant dry differed significantly (p≤0.05) from each other, respectively in all the ambiences. Non pregnant milch animals showed lowest activities whereas pregnant dry animals exhibited highest activities of both the enzymes. Multipara animals showed significantly (p≤0.05) higher activities than primipara. Serum oxidase and peroxidase are considered as important markers to assess oxidative stress. Increased activities of both the enzymes reflected the presence of oxidative stress in the buffaloes. It was concluded that extreme ambiences resulted into oxidative stress affecting the animals of all the physiological states. In each ambience the magnitude of increase was greater in pregnant dry animals. Trend was similar in all the ambiences but impact was maximum during hot ambience. Multipara animals showed greater changes than primipara. It can be stated that multipara and pregnant dry animals require proper care and supplementation of immuno-nutrients in order to protect them from the ensuing risk of oxidative stress. Further serum oxidase and peroxidase activities can be used effectively in detection of oxidative stress.
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