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Articles by S. Kapoor
Total Records ( 4 ) for S. Kapoor
  K. Dhama , S. Chakraborty , R.V.S. Pawaiya , R. Tiwari and S. Kapoor
  Foamy viruses (FVs) are complex retroviruses under the genus Spumavirus of family Retroviridae. They cause induction of multinucleated giant cell formation which presents numerous vacuoles, giving the monolayer culture a foamy appearance. FVs can infect animals as well as humans. In case of the Human foamy virus (HFV), a defective variant (named ΔHFV or HFVΔTas) negatively interferes with replication of parental counterpart. Some species, such as rhesus macaques, African green monkeys, chimpanzees and cats harbor closely related yet serologically distinct FV subtypes. Unanticipated FV pathogenicity may warrant appropriate attention to biosafety practices to prevent occupational infections and the importance of additional studies to better define clinical outcome of these zoonotic infections. During cross-species infection and subsequent passages a rapid and fatal disease can occur, with changes from nonpathogenic to pathogenic potentials. In persons occupationally exposed to non-human primates, Simian foamy virus (SFV) infection occurs persistently showing that simian retroviruses cross into humans more frequently. Simian Immunodeficiency Viruses (SIV), mostly are nonpathogenic in their natural hosts but during cross-species infection a rapid and fatal disease can occur. Enzyme Immuno Assay (EIA), Western blot analysis and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) amplification are the important diagnostic tests for FVs. FVs are also being exploited as potential vectors that can be used for gene therapy which is gaining much attention of the researchers worldwide. Strengthening sero-epidemiological as well as molecular investigations and public health surveillance programme along with extra precautions while transferring xenograft are some of the approaches to prevent these viral infections.
  L. M. S Cohee , M. T Crocetti , J. R Serwint , B Sabath and S. Kapoor

To explore knowledge and management of childhood fever among ethnically diverse parents and identify opportunities for educational intervention, we administered a cross-sectional survey to a convenience sample of 487 parents of children enrolled in 2 urban hospital-based pediatric clinics. Outcomes included parental definition of fever, level of concern, and management of fever. Latino parents were least likely to identify a temperature as nonfebrile from 97-100.3°F (adjusted odds ratios [AOR] 0.06) or identify a fever as a temperature from 100.4-107°F (AOR 0.52). African Americans were least likely to believe that fever can cause death or brain damage (AOR 0.4). African Americans were more likely to dose ibuprofen more frequently than recommended (AOR 1.97). All ethnicities are equally likely to treat normal temperatures and dose acetaminophen too frequently.Therefore continued education of all families about fever is necessary, and there are opportunities to develop ethnically sensitive strategies to target educational interventions.

  K. Dhama , S. Rajagunalan , S. Chakraborty , A.K. Verma , A. Kumar , R. Tiwari and S. Kapoor
  The term food borne diseases or food-borne illnesses or more commonly food poisoning are used to denote gastrointestinal complications that occur following recent consumption of a particular food or drink. Millions of people suffer worldwide every year and the situation is quiet grave in developing nations creating social and economic strain. The food borne pathogens include various bacteria viz., Salmonella, Campylobacter, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Yersinia enterocolitica, Staphylococcus, Arcobacter, Clostridium perfringens, Cl. botulinum and Bacillus cereus and helminths viz., Taenia. They also include protozoa viz., Trichinella, Sarcocystis, Toxoplasma gondii and Cryptosporidium parvum. The zoonotic potential and the ability to elaborate toxins by many of the microbes causing fatal intoxication are sufficient to understand the seriousness of the situation. The viral agents being host specific their transmission to humans through food of animal origin is not yet confirmed although these animal viruses are similar to that of viruses infecting human. Food-borne bacteria; protozoa and helminthes have complex distribution pattern in the environment and inside the host system. This along with complexity of the maintenance chain and life cycle (of parasites) has made it difficult for epidemiologist and diagnostician to undertake any immediate safety measures against them. Serological and molecular diagnostic tests viz. ELISA, Latex agglutination test, Lateral flow assays, Immunomagnetic separation assays, molecular assays viz. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), multiplex PCR, immuno-PCR, Realtime PCR, Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR, DNA microarrays and probes are widely used. Along with these LAMP assays, Capillary Electrophoresis-Single Strand Confirmation polymorphism (CE-SSCP); Flow cytometry, FISH, Biosensors, Direct epifluorescent filter technique, nanotechnology based methods and sophisticated tools (ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging and chlonangio-pancreatography) have aided in the diagnosis greatly. Most of the food-borne illnesses are self-limiting but in many instances antibiotics are recommended. With the increased drug resistance however use of chicken immunoglobulin, bacteriophage therapy, probiotics and herbs are gaining much importance these days. Adoption of proper prevention and control measures (including cooking procedures; hygiene, strict adherence to HACCP principles, public awareness and disease surveillance and monitoring) are the need of hour. All these have been discussed vividly in this review to help epidemiologists, diagnosticians, clinicians and above all common people so as to enable them avoid negligence regarding such serious issue.
  K. Dhama , S. Kapoor , R.V.S. Pawaiya , S. Chakraborty , R. Tiwari and A.K. Verma
  A fascinating and important arbovirus is Ross River Virus (RRV) which is endemic and epizootic in nature in certain parts of the world. RRV is a member of the genus Alphavirus within the Semliki Forest complex of the family Togaviridae, which also includes the Getah virus. The virus is responsible for causing disease both in humans as well as horses. Mosquito species (Aedes camptorhynchus and Aedes vigilax; Culex annulirostris) are the most important vector for this virus. In places of low temperature as well as low rainfall or where there is lack of habitat of mosquito there is also limitation in the transmission of the virus. Such probability is higher especially in temperate regions bordering endemic regions having sub-tropical climate. There is involvement of articular as well as non-articular cells in the replication of RRV. Levels of pro-inflammatory factors viz., tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α); interferon-gamma (IFN-γ); and macrophage chemo-attractant protein-1 (MAC-1) during disease pathogenesis have been found to be reduced. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is the most advanced molecular diagnostic tool along with epitope-blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detecting RRV infection. Treatment for RRV infection is only supportive. Vaccination is not a fruitful approach. Precise data collection will help the researchers to understand the RRV disease dynamics and thereby designing effective prevention and control strategy. Advances in diagnosis, vaccine development and emerging/novel therapeutic regimens need to be explored to their full potential to tackle RRV infection and the disease it causes.
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