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Articles by S. Johnson
Total Records ( 3 ) for S. Johnson
  M Inoue , J. G Pickard , P Welch Saleeby and S. Johnson
 

This study utilizes a stress and coping framework which includes cognitive appraisal, personal and environmental resources, coping and stress to examine factors related to African-American caregivers’ breast cancer screenings, including mammograms, clinical examinations and self-examinations. Using data from the Black Rural and Urban Caregivers Mental Health and Functioning Study, we performed separate logistic regressions for each type of breast cancer screening. Results reveal that having a regular doctor checkup (coping), care recipients having a cancer diagnosis (cognitive appraisal, and living in urban areas (environment resources) are associated with receiving a mammogram. Having greater income, having at least a high school degree (both personal resources) and having a regular doctor checkup (coping) are associated with receiving a clinical examination. Increased caregiver strain (stress), being 40 years old or older, social support (coping) and living in rural areas are associated with performing a self-examination. Targeting African-American caregivers, particularly in rural areas, for increased education on the importance of receiving breast cancer screenings is crucial to addressing health disparities. Making resources available, encouraging caregivers to get a clinical examination and a mammogram and directing public education toward caregivers are important points of intervention.

  D.C. Weindorf , N. Bakr , Y. Zhu , B. Haggard , S. Johnson and J. Daigle
  Placic horizons, defined as thin, wavy, hardened layers of iron and organic matter, are rare within the United States, occurring only in Washington, Alaska, and Hawaii. While ironstone is common in many soils of the southeastern United States, it is not known to contain appreciable organic matter. As a pilot study evaluating the justification for a larger study on ironstone in Louisiana, a 40 m lateral exposure with suspected placic horizons was evaluated in Vernon Parish, Louisiana. Results of laboratory analysis show elevated levels of iron and organic matter in the suspect horizons that meet the criteria of placic horizons as defined by the Soil Survey Staff. Based on the results of this study, additional evaluation of multiple pedons with similar features is warranted. Should additional pedons demonstrate similar properties, a new great group of ‘Petrudepts’ would be needed to describe both the placic horizons in the pedon and the udic moisture regime in which they occur.
  B Lloyd Evans , M Slade , D Jagielska and S. Johnson
 

Background

Reducing use of hospital wards and improving their quality are central aims of mental health service policy. However, no comprehensive synthesis is available of evidence on residential alternatives to standard acute psychiatric wards.

Aims

To assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of and satisfaction with residential alternatives to standard acute in-patient mental health services.

Method

A systematic search identified controlled studies comparing residential alternatives with standard in-patient services. Studies were described and assessed for methodological quality. Results from higher quality studies are presented and discussed.

Results

Twenty-seven relevant studies were identified. Nine studies of moderate quality provide no contraindication to identified alternative service models and limited preliminary evidence that community-based alternatives may be cheaper and individuals more satisfied than in standard acute wards.

Conclusions

More research is needed to establish the effectiveness of service models and target populations for residential alternatives to standard acute wards. Community-based residential crisis services may provide a feasible and acceptable alternative to hospital admission for some people with acute mental illness.

 
 
 
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