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Articles by S. Ismail
Total Records ( 4 ) for S. Ismail
  N.A. Hanapi , J. Azizi , S. Ismail and S.M. Mansor
  This study investigated the effects of selected Malaysian medicinal plant extracts towards human recombinant cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzyme activities in vitro. Five Malaysian medicinal plants were tested on the three main CYP450 enzyme activities of CYP2C9, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4. The abilities of these extracts to inhibit human cytochrome P450 enzyme activities were analyzed using a luminescent assay. Orthosiphon stamineus showed the most potent inhibitory activity against CYP2C9 with an apparent IC50 value of 77.5±1.1 μg mL-1, while Andrographis paniculata, Curcuma xanthorrhiza, Eurycoma longifolia and Mitragyna speciosa extracts showed negligible inhibition. On the metabolism mediated by CYP2D6, Mitragyna speciosa showed the most potent inhibitory activities with IC50 values of 3.6±0.1 μg mL-1, followed by Orthosiphon stamineus, Andrographis paniculata and Curcuma xanthorrhiza with IC50 value of 11.7±1.1, 44.2±4.5 and 215.3±71.6 μg mL-1, respectively. Andrographis paniculata ethanolic extract gave the lowest IC50 value towards CYP3A4 with an apparent IC50 value of 27.6±3.7 μg mL-1, followed by Orthosiphon stamineus (78.4±20.3 μg mL-1), Mitragyna speciosa (142.8±13.8 μg mL-1) and Curcuma xanthorrhiza (285.3±61.7 μg mL-1). Sulfaphenazole, quinidine and ketoconazole were used as positive controls for CYP2C9, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 respectively. The findings suggest that Orthosiphon stamineus, Mitragyna speciosa and Andrographis paniculata may contribute to herb-drug interactions if they are administered concomitantly with drugs metabolized by CYP2C9, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 respectively.
  F. Mustaffa , J. Indurkar , S. Ismail , M.N. Mordi , S. Ramanathan and S.M. Mansor
  This study investigated the antioxidant capacity and safety parameters (toxicity) of Cinnomomum iners standardized leaves methanolic extract (CSLE) to provide information regarding long term usage of this plant. CSLE exhibited high total phenolic (211.94±12.04 mg GAE g-1 plant material) and flavonoid (13.38±0.08 mg CE g-1 plant material) contents. The antioxidant activity of CSLE was evaluated using DPPH, H2O2 and reducing power assay. CSLE showed potent antioxidant activity with IC50 value of 0.5±0.26 mg mL-1 and 1.00±0.31 mg mL-1 in DPPH assay and H2O2 study, respectively. The electron donating capability (reducing power) of CSLE was found to be higher than standard antioxidant (vitamin E). The toxicity screening of CSLE was conducted using brine shrimp assay, acute toxicity screening and histopathologic study. An acute toxicity study was carried out by using OECD guideline 423. The LC50 and LD50 values of CSLE were found to be 2.59±0.3 mg mL-1 and > 5000 mg kg-1, respectively. The organ body weight of the CSLE treated mice shows no considerable difference with control group mice. This shows that CSLE does not affect the weight of the mice. No mortality or significant signs of acute toxicity was observed during the 14 days observation period. On the day 14, all the mice were dissected and organ as heart, liver, kidney, spleen and lung were withdrawn for the calculation of organ body index. The organ body index obtained showed that no significant difference with control. Withdrawn organ was subjected to histopathological study. Histopathological analysis of organs did not show any pathological changes. The results obtained in present study indicate that CSLE is very good antioxidant source with high margin of safety.
  M.S.M. Zabri Tan , M.R. Ab Halim , S. Ismail , F. Mustaffa , N.I. Mohd Ali and R. Mahmud
  Many compounds from plants have been found to play an active role in inhibition and induction of GST activity. This study aims to evaluate the capability of five commonly used medicinal plants in Malaysia to inhibit the glutathione S-transferases (GST) activity in vitro. The ability of the plant extracts to inhibit GST activity was examined on rat liver cytosolic fraction and was analyzed using ultraviolet (UV) absorbance at 340 nm. When 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) was used as a substrate, tannic acid exerted inhibition with IC50 value of 6.18 μg mL-1. The methanol extracts of Orthosiphon stamineus and Cinnamomum iners demonstrated the highest inhibitory activity against GST activity showing IC50 values of 35.20±8.72 and 35.55±3.84 μg mL-1. It is noted that, at 250 μg mL-1 C. iners exhibited 1.3 more inhibition activity than tannic acid. The different parts of Croton argyratum plant were also evaluated on the GST inhibitory potential. Comparing the inhibition abilities of each part of Croton argyratum in decreasing order are leaves>roots> stems with IC50 values of 40.42, 57.88 and 143.80 μg mL-1, respectively. The data may suggest potential use of Orthosiphon stamineus and Cinnamomum iners as herbal medicines with GST inhibitory effect.
  S. Ismail , I. Idris , Y.T. Ng and A.L. Ahmad
  Aluminum sulfate or alum is traditionally used as a coagulant in wastewater treatment since it has proven its effectiveness in the removal suspended solid. In the current study, coagulation process is used as a pre-treatment to remove the high content of the suspended solids for membrane distillation treatment in raw Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) at high temperature. The performance in term of percentage suspended solids removal was evaluated to identify the optimum conditions for each of temperatures (30, 50, 60, 70 and 80°C). The operating parameters for the coagulation process which are coagulant dosages (1-6 g L-1) and pH (4-8). The optimum temperature for coagulation process was found at 50°C with pH (6.5) and coagulant dosage (4 g L-1). Thus, these finding shows it can be used as pretreatment before further treat by membrane distillation (MD) treatment.
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