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Articles by S. Gupta
Total Records ( 12 ) for S. Gupta
  B.J. Stephen , S.V. Singh , Manali Datta , Neelam Jain , Sujata Jayaraman , K.K. Chaubey , S. Gupta , Manju Singh , G.K. Aseri , Neeraj Khare , Parul Yadav , Kuldeep Dhama and J.S. Sohal
  Tuberculosis, an infectious bacterial disease that affects the lungs is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). It is the second most infectious disease after AIDS, which can affect both animals and humans. Johne’s Disease (JD) or paratuberculosis caused by in intracellular bacterium Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) is an incurable wasting disease known to affect a large number of domestic animals and poses serious threat to livestock industries through huge economic losses. Conventional diagnostic methods like enzyme linked immunosorbat assay (ELISA), Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), cultural isolation are identification for use in MAP detection while sputum smear microscopy and PCR techniques remain the gold standards for TB detection despite advancement in pathogen detection most of these diagnostic methods are time consuming and have low efficacy and this become a heavy burden to developing and underdeveloped countries. When nanoscale particles are used as tags or labels, measuring the activity or presence of an analyte becomes faster, flexible and highly sensitive. These advantages nanomaterials possess, research have now focused their attention to nanotechnology based detection. Though research have shown these test to be more sensitive, less laboratorious and less time consuming, more needs to be done to introduce point of care diagnostics into the global market. This review highlights the prospects of nanotechnology based diagnostic tests as valuable alternative for rapid detection of this economically important pathogen with high accuracy and precision.
  B.J. Stephen , Mukta Jain , Kuldeep Dhama , S.V. Singh , Manali Datta , Neelam Jain , Sujata Jayaraman , Manju Singh , K.K. Chaubey , S. Gupta , G.K. Aseri , Neeraj Khare , Parul Yadav and J.S. Sohal
  Johne’s Disease (JD) is a contagious fatal granulomatous enteritis, known to affect ruminants and is caused by the acid-fast Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP). The bacterium has also been linked to Crohn’s Disease (CD) in humans. Treatment options are scarce with culling practiced in the case of Johne’s Disease (JD) and administration of anti-inflammatory drugs for pain and inflammation in case of CD. In both cases antimicrobial therapy against MAP does not have the ultimate potential. The very promising, yet untapped potential of nanotechnology offers a suitable platform for developing new therapeutic strategies for diseases caused by the bacteria. Uniformity, specificity and reproducibility are some of the characteristics of nanotechnology that can be exploited for the treatment of infectious diseases. Factors like cost, efficacy, safety and bioavailability of drugs can be greatly improved when the drugs are delivered with precision and at a controlled delivery rate to the target location. Nanotechnology can help in achieving these targets. This review discusses the current scenario of available therapeutic approaches and proposes drugs targeting strategies and vaccine development methods for the treatment and prevention of MAP related diseases.
  S. Gupta and R.K. Sharma
  Leishmaniasis, being one of the Neglected Diseases, has very insignificant global Research and development attention. There is a need to employ in silico bioinformatics tools in support of pharmacological screening to expedite the drug development process with optimal success rate. The present in silico studies revealed that punaglandin 3 and kalihinol X isolated from the soft coral Telesto riisei and Fijian sponge species of Acanthella sp., respectively showed promising antileishmanial activity, thereby, saving a substantial amount of time, energy and resources which would have otherwise been wasted, in random pharmacological screening of marine samples with no surety of targeting a right sample for a right screen.
  V. Rai , U. Yadav , P. Kumar and S. Gupta
  The present study was aimed to analyze methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) A66G polymorphism in Uttar Pradesh (UP) population and PCR-RFLP method was used for the mutation analysis. Total 104 samples were analyzed and AA genotype was found in 10 individuals, AG genotype in 67 individuals and GG in 27 individuals. The frequencies of AA, AG and GG genotypes in the present study were also assessed with the expected distribution (i.e. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium) by using χ2 test. The genotype frequencies of AA, AG and GG were 0.096, 0.644 and 0.259, respectively. Allelic frequencies of A and G were 0.418 and 0.581. It was reflected from the results of the present study that the percentage of heterozygous genotype (AG) is highest in the target population.
  J Richardson , N Collinghan , A. J Scally and S. Gupta

It is possible that interruption of nociceptive input from intervertebral discs can be modulated through bilateral L1 and L2 dorsal root ganglia (DRG) blockade. In order to test this hypothesis, we prospectively collected data from patients with low-lumbar pain, accurately diagnosed as discogenic using provocation discography.


Twelve patients were recruited with a mean (sd) symptom duration of 13.7 (8.2) years. Bilateral DRG blocks of L1 and L2 were performed using methylprednisolone 80 mg, clonidine 75 µg and 0.5% bupivacaine 4 ml in each patient.


Analysis of Brief Pain Inventories showed no significant change in pain scores.


We conclude that blocks of this nociceptive pathway in humans using bilateral DRG blocks has no therapeutic value.

  D.B. Barad , B.S. Chandel , A.I. Dadawala , H.C. Chauhan , H.S. Kher , S. Shroff , A.G. Bhagat , S.V. Singh , P.K. Singh , A.V. Singh , J.S. Sohal , S. Gupta , K.K. Chaubey , S. Chakraborty , R. Tiwari , R. Deb and K. Dhama
  Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causative agent of chronic enteric granulomatous inflammation in animals and is known as Johne’s Disease (JD) or Paratuberculosis. JD, being spectral in nature, presents variable bacteriological, immunological and pathological spectra leading to variable efficacy of diagnostic methods at different points of time during the course of infection. The present study aimed to estimate the incidence of MAP in two important breeds of goats (Mehsani and Surti) from South Gujarat region of India by applying conventional, molecular and serological methods. A total 219 goats were screened and categorized into Group-I (123 Mehsani goats), Group-II (76 Surti goats) and Group-III, (20 Non-descript goats). Percent positivity by faecal smear examination, delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH), agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID), IS900 polymerase chain reaction) (PCR) and indigenous enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit was 9.2 (7/76), 21.9 (27/123), 10.9 (24/219), 12.5 (5/40) and 43.3% (95/219), respectively. Of the 123 goats of Group-I, 27 (21.9%) were positive in DTH test. Of the 5 faecal positive goats which also showed clinical signs, 2 (3.5%) goats died during study were negative by Johnin test. Similar to these findings, sensitivity of Johnin test in goats ranged between 18-30% with least specificity in both preclinical and advanced stage of disease. Of 34 cases of caprine paratuberculosis, 73.5% goats were positive for Johnin test. In the present study, out of the 5 infected goats, 3 (60%) were positive in Johnin test. Rectal pinch smear examination was carried out in 27 DTH positive goats and all smears were negative for the presence of acid fast bacilli. Screening tests (Indigenous ELISA and DTH) showed very high incidence of MAP infection in the goat population. The utility of multiple diagnostic tests is suggested for confirmatory detection and epidemiological diseases investigations of MAP in animals.
  A. Kumar , S.V. Singh , A.K. Srivastava , N.K. Gangwar , P.K. Singh , S. Gupta , K.K. Chaubey , R. Tiwari , S. Chakraborty and K. Dhama
  Johne’s Disease (JD), caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, is endemic in domestic animals and adversely affects dairy industry worldwide. In the present study, efficacies of ‘Indigenous’and commercial (Gudair, Spain) vaccines were evaluated for control of JD in experimentally challenged goats. Goats were grouped into Sham-immunized, Indigenous and Gudair vaccine groups. Vaccinated kids were challenged at 50 and 270 Days Post Vaccination (DPV), with 3×109 and 5×109 ‘Indian Bison Type strain ‘S 5’, respectively and sacrificed at 150 and 450 DPV after 1st and 2nd challenge, respectively. Vaccines were evaluated for improvements in physical condition (diarrhea, weakness, body coat color), clinical symptoms (shedding of bacilli, mortality, morbidity), immune responses (cell-mediated and humoral), pathology (gross and microscopic lesions) and production status (body weights, growth rates). Vaccinated goats gained higher body weights vis a vis sham-immunized. Mortality was higher in sham-immunized. Cell Mediated Immunity (CMI) response increased at 30 DPV and showed down regulation from 90 DPV onwards in vaccinated goats. Significant increase in humoral immune response was observed in vaccinated goats at 180 DPV and maintained till 450 DPV. Microscopical examination at 180 DPV showed reduced shedding in vaccinated groups, At 200 DPV, group 1 goats showed thickening of small intestine with corrugations specifically at ileocaecal junction, catarrhal enteritis with infiltration of mononuclear cells and epitheloid cells. In vaccinated groups, there were focal thickening of intestines at 450 DPV with lesions of chronic catarrhal enteritis and presence of lymphocyte, plasma cells and macrophages cells with a few epitheloid cells. Monitoring of MAP DNA in the blood of experimental goats of all the groups was done by testing of blood samples by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and the vaccinated groups of goats revealed MAP bacilli free status upto 300 DPV. Both the vaccines provided protection after challenge I, but since indigenous vaccine also protected goats after challenge II, was therefore superior. In conclusion, the indigenous vaccine must be exploited for its full potential for effective prevention and control of this economically important disease having public health concerns.
  S. Gupta , G. Bhaskar and H.C. Andola
  In the present investigation two essential oil components linalool and limonene quantity were estimated in the leaves of male and female plants of different altitudes (775, 1100 and 1650 m). The plant material collected from different sites was named as Z-1, Z-2 and Z-3, respectively. The essential oil obtained was dark greenish black in bulk, yellowish green in thin layers, very fluid and had an odor of ether. In Z-1, Z-2 and Z-3 female leaves linalool was found to be 34.1, 27.2 and 11.7% and limonene to be 1.6, 2.4 and 6.4%, respectively. In male leaves also significant variation was found in the quantity of linalool and limonene in plants of different altitudes. In Z-1, Z-2 and Z-3 male leaves linalool was found to be 35.6, 19.8 and 10.0% and limonene to be 2.8, 4.0 and 4.5%, respectively.
  K.L. Tiwari , S.K. Jadhav and S. Gupta
  Medicinal plants utilization and conservation has attracted global attention. Optimization of DNA isolation protocol for genetic characterization of any medicinal plants is the necessary and primary step. So, the standardization of DNA isolation is basic requirement for any further research to be carried out. We report here modified CTAB technique for isolation of genomic DNA from five selected medicinal plants namely Catharanthus roseus, Tridax procumbens, Tinospora cordifolia, Aloe barbadensis and Cissus quadrangularis. The comparison of genomic DNA yield from all the five medicinal plants and their different organs (leaves, nodal stem and meristematic region) was performed. We got good yield of DNA from leaves, nodal stem and meristematic region of these medicinal plants. Genomic DNA isolated by modified CTAB method was pure, the highest level of purity was obtained from Aloe barbadensis was 1.93 from leaves and concentration from Tinospora cordifolia was 833.00 μg mL-1 from nodal stem. Other plants also gave good yield of genomic DNA with purity range between 1.26 to 1.93 and concentration range from 179.00 to 833.00 μg mL-1. All the five selected medicinal plants for this research gave good yield of DNA from the established modified CTAB protocol. From all the organs of these medicinal plants DNA obtained was pure and quantity was also good in all five plants.
  S. Preet and S. Gupta
  The purpose of this study was to assess changes induced in free amino acids in the digestive gland-gonad complex and haemolymph of Indoplanorbis exustus naturally infected with larval digenes. A preliminary thin layer chromatography, followed by HPTLC analysis was used to determine the qualitative status of free amino acids in the uninfected and infected snails. Qualitative analysis showed the presence of seven amino acids, namely, histidine, lysine, alanine, serine, valine, leucine and isoleucine in uninfected DGG and haemolymph, whereas, only lysine was not observed in all infected sample. Alanine was absent in snails infected with Cercariae indicae XVII and Cotylophoron cotylophorom, however, valine also depleted in snails infected with C. cotylophorom. Quantitative analysis of total free amino acids in all infected DGG and haemolymph samples depicted significant decrease (p<0.05) in their concentrations thus clearly indicating depletion of amino acids in parasitized snails.
  S. Gupta , S.V.N.T. Kuchibhatla , M.H. Engelhard , V. Shutthanandan , P. Nachimuthu , W. Jiang , L.V. Saraf , S. Thevuthasan and S. Prasad
  In order to evaluate and analyze the effect of samarium (Sm) doping on the resistance of cerium oxide, we have grown highly oriented samaria doped ceria (SDC) thin films on sapphire, Al2O3 (0 0 0 1) substrates by using oxygen plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (OPA-MBE). The film growth was monitored using reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) which shows two-dimensional growth throughout the deposition. Following growth, the thin films were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), high-resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD), and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS). XPS depth-profile shows Sm atoms are uniformly distributed in ceria lattice throughout the bulk of the film. The valence states of Ce and Sm in doped thin films are found to be Ce4+ and Sm3+, respectively. HRXRD shows the samaria doped ceria films on Al2O3 (0 0 0 1) exhibit (1 1 1) preferred orientation. Ion-channeling in RBS measurements confirms high quality of the thin films. The resistance of the samaria doped ceria films, obtained by two probe measurement capability under various oxygen pressure (1 mTorr–100 Torr) and temperatures (623–973 K), is significantly lower than that of pure ceria under same conditions. The 6 at.% samaria doped ceria film is the optimum composition for highest conductivity. This is attributed to the increased oxygen vacant sites in fluorite crystal structure of the epitaxial thin films which facilitate faster oxygen diffusion through hopping process.
  J. Singh , S. Gupta and H. Kaur
  Drug release from polymers may be erosion or diffusion based or combination of these processes. Various equations and models are available for relating drug release. Most of the decisions are made on basis of similarity of original and predicted release profiles (predicted by fitting release data in various models or equations). In this study, decision for release pattern has been made on basis of SSR/R2 for model drug ofloxacin from laboratory developed Extended Release (ER) matrix tablets. Three batches A, B, C having HPMC, sodium alginate and 50:50% mixture of HPMC:sodium alginate were prepared. The USP Dissolution apparatus 2 was used for ofloxacin release and swelling-erosion studies of different batches in SGF, buffer of pH 6.2 and SIF. The batch C, ofloxacin matrix tablet composition was finalised on basis of <30% release within 1 h in SGF, >85% release upto 8 h in SIF and conformity to shape of profile within 1-7 h dissolution in buffer of pH 6.2. Instead of use of SSR and R2 on individual basis, SSR/R2 expressed ofloxacin release mechanisms in good agreement to physically observed swelling-erosion behaviors of matrix tablets in all pH conditions.
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