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Articles by S. Fakurazi
Total Records ( 10 ) for S. Fakurazi
  S. Ganabadi , S. Mutuviren , M.A. Hilmi , S.M.A. Babjee , H. Yaakub and S. Fakurazi
  Carcass composition of three breed of chicken was compared: jungle fowl, broiler and Malaysian indigenous chicken. The chickens were sacrificed and were divided into forequarter and hindquarter. The forequarter was further divide into breast, wing and ribs. The muscle, bone, fat and skin of all different portions were separated, weighed and recorded. The results showed that broilers have significantly higher muscle weight compared to indigenous chicken and jungle fowl. The jungle fowl has significantly higher bone weight with least fat compared to the other two breeds The carcass composition of indigenous chicken is always in between the broiler and jungle fowl. Present results show that different habitat and feeding pattern of these chickens do contribute to these changes.
  S. Ganabadi , S. Mutuviren , M.A. Hilmi , S.M.A. Babjee , H. Yaakub and S. Fakurazi
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  F.J. AL-Saffar , S. Ganabadi , H. Yaakub and S. Fakurazi
  The objective of this study was to apply and compare two different experimental osteoarthritis (OA) methods in the rat, namely: Collagenase induced OA (CO) and Monosodium iodoacetate induced OA (MIA) models. The assessment of OA development and progression were performed through three different periods (2, 4 and 6 weeks). Intra-articular injection of either 4 mg joint-1 CO type II or 3 mg joint-1 MIA, were administered to the adult male Sprague Dawley rats, into their right knee joints. Evaluation of OA changes in the knees was achieved with both histopathology score system and radiography approach. Gross results revealed earliest changes such as swelling and redness of the right knee joints of all rats injected with either CO or MIA. Joint dissection revealed distinct thickening of the joint capsule in MIA-injected rats than in CO group. Present finding revealed early development of radiographical as well as histopathological changes in MIA injected group. However, both OA injected groups resulted in a chronic joint degeneration, measured by cellular changes, matrix degradation, subchondral changes and marginal osteophyte formation. Present findings showed significantly higher histopathological score in MIA injected group than those of CO in each of the three selected periods for OA induction. In conclusion, present results demonstrated that MIA can induce OA changes in a shorter period of time than CO in the Sprague Dawley rat. Radiography approach could be a useful tool to evaluate osteoarthritic changes in the knee joints.
  S. Fakurazi , U. Nanthini and I. Hairuszah
  This study is conducted to investigate the possible hepatoprotective action of Moringa oleifera Lam. (MO), a high value medicinal plant against a single high dose of APAP induced hepatotoxicity. Male Sprague Dawley rats were dosed with APAP (3000 mg kg-1 body weight; p.o.) to induce hepatocellular damage. In rats that were pretreated with MO (200 and 800 mg kg-1; p.o.) for 14 days prior to APAP treatment, there was a reduction of liver enzymes (ALT, AST and ALP) and also the restoration of glutathione level. The biochemical results showed parallel finding with the histopathological analysis in which liver sections obtained from rats pretreated with MO, the damage was blocked. Intriguingly, MO alone has significantly elevated the level glutathione compared to the control group. The findings has suggested that Moringa oleifera Lam. is a promising product in protecting the liver against APAP induced liver injury via the restoration and elevation of glutathione level in the liver.
  F.J. Al-Saffar , S. Ganabadi , S. Fakurazi and H. Yaakub
  The main objective of this study was to elucidate the extent of hepatic oxidative stress following oral administration of zerumbone against monosodium iodoacetate induced Osteoarthritis (OA) in rats by monitoring microsomal cytochrome P450 and glutathione S-transferase enzymes as well as determination of oxidative stress biomarkers i.e., glutathione and malondialdehyde. Forty rats were randomly assigned into five groups. Rats in the first and second groups were treated with two different doses of zerumbone. Rats in the third group (positive control) were given celecoxib whereas the fourth group (negative control) was given corn oil. Rats of the fifth group were untreated not induced with OA and were used as a basal group. Results showed significant induction of cytochrome P450 and glutathione S-transferase and insignificant changes in both glutathione and lipid peroxidation levels in zerumbone treated groups compared to corn oil and basal groups. Levels of ALT and AST in zerumbone treated groups were comparable to the level in the basal group indicating absence of liver damage. Prostaglandin E2 level significantly reduced following zerumbone administration. Safety profile of zerumbone in this study, attract new investigation to explore its advantageous effect on using higher dosage regimen and/or longer duration against OA or other disease.
  F.J. Al-Saffar , S. Ganabadi , S. Fakurazi , H. Yaakub and M. Lip
  The objective of this investigation was to evaluate chondroprotective effect of zerumbone, a purified compound of Zingiber zerumbet Smith against monosodium iodoacetate (MIA) induced knee osteoarthritis (OA) in the rat. The effect on the articular cartilage was examined and compared with celecoxib (Celebrex®), a Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug (NSAID). Forty adult male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into four groups (n=10 for each). All animals were injected with MIA intraarticularly in their right knee joints to induce OA. Rats from first and second groups were treated with zerumbone in a same dose but with two different concentrations. Rats in the third group were treated with celecoxib and served as positive control whereas the fourth group were treated with corn oil and served as negative control. Evaluation of OA changes in the knees was assessed with the aid of both radiography and histopathology score. Macroscopic as well as microscopic examinations revealed curative effect of zerumbone in a dose dependent manner on the osteoarthritic knee joints. Apart from this, our data also revealed very poor anti-OA property of celecoxib. We concluded that oral administration of zerumbone in a dose of 2 mL kg-1 b.wt. of 0.4% w/v diluted with corn oil for a period of 4 weeks has some chondroprotective effects.
  S. Fakurazi , I. Hairuszah , J. Mohd Lip and G. Shanthi
  This study was designed to determine whether zerumbone, an essential bioactive compound isolated from Zingiber zerumbet Smith protects against early ethanol induced liver injury in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered with 0.05% (v/v) to 0.5% (v/v) of zerumbone for 14 days. Following the final dosage of zerumbone, the animals were administered with 50% (v/v) ethanol for 14 days. We have observed that pre-treatment of zerumbone had suppressed fatty liver formation following ethanol 50% (v/v) administration. Meanwhile, rats that were treated with ethanol only, found to show significant level of focal vacuolated fatty liver with focal necrosis in the mid zonal region. Therefore, fatty liver development was found to be extensively reduced in animals that were pretreated with zerumbone.
  M. Moorthy , S. Fakurazi and H. Ithnin
  This study was conducted to investigate and to compare liver perturbation following administration of low doses of diclofenac and ibuprofen to rats. Hundred and forty-four male Sprague Dawley rats were dosed with 3, 5 and 10 mg kg-1 diclofenac and ibuprofen in saline via intraperitoneal injection for 15 days. The control group was administered with saline in a similar manner. Four rats were euthanised every three days until day 15. Livers were removed, cleaned and a section across the right lobe was taken and fixed in 10% formalin for light microscopy and TUNEL assay. One-way ANOVA was used to analyse the data. p<0.05 was accepted as significant in this study. Three, 5 and 10 mg kg-1 diclofenac-treated groups and 5, 10 mg kg-1 ibuprofen administered groups showed significant changes compared to saline-treated group at day 15. The changes include presence of focal infiltration by neutrophils and lymphocytes and mild focal necrosis. In 5 and 10 mg kg-1 diclofenac administered groups and 10 mg kg-1 ibuprofen-treated group, apoptotic cells were seen around the perivenular regions (PV) only at day 15. However, not all the PVs were present with apoptotic cells. This study has shown that, diclofenac is probably more potent in inducing histomorphological changes at low doses. Both the drugs seem to exert time and dose dependent liver morphological alterations to the treated animals.
  S. Fakurazi , I. Hairuszah , J. Mohd Lip , G. Shanthi , U. Nanthini , A.R. Shamima , H. Roslida and Y.H. Tan
  This study is conducted to investigate the possible effect of zerumbone towards hepatoprotective activity against paracetamol intoxication. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into six groups consisted of 3-5 animals. Group I was administered with 0.2% zerumbone for 14 days prior to 3 g kg-1 paracetamol administration. Group II was given paracetamol only and group III was given 200 mg kg-1 of silymarin and paracetamol. Group IV was administered with zerumbone only and finally group V was treated with corn oil and 40% sucrose buffer as vehicle treated group. Animals were sacrificed at 4 and 24 h post treatment following diethyl ether. There was no significant changes in liver enzyme activities as well as histological observations at 4 h after paracetamol administration. Meanwhile, 24 h after paracetamol administration, the level of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were found to be reduced in rats that were pretreated with zerumbone compared to group that was treated with paracetamol only. Correspondingly, there was no hepatocellular necrosis observed in rats that were pretreated with zerumbone. The results obtained may have suggested that zerumbone exert hepatoprotective activities against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity.
  M. Moorthy , S. Fakurazi and H. Ithnin
  This study was conducted to identify and to compare the mitochondrial morphological alterations in livers of rats treated with various doses of diclofenac and ibuprofen. Hundred and forty-four male Sprague Dawley rats were dosed with 3, 5 and 10 mg kg-1 diclofenac and ibuprofen in saline via intraperitoneal injection for 15 days. The control group was administered with saline in a similar manner. Four rats were euthanised every 3 days until day 15. While 200 mg kg-1 diclofenac and ibuprofen-treated rats (n = 4) were euthanized 10 h post-treatment. The livers were removed, cleaned and a section across the right lobe was taken and fixed in 4% (v/v) glutaraldehyde for electron microscopy analysis and the remaining samples were kept at -80°C for Western blot analysis. Five milligram per kilogram and 10 mg kg-1 diclofenac-administered rats for 15 days revealed the presence of enlarged mitochondria, irregular and ruptured mitochondrial membranes. While rats administered with 10 mg kg-1 ibuprofen also showed the presence of mitochondria with irregular membrane structure and ruptured membranes. Western blotting analysis of mitochondrial fractions revealed the expression of cytochrome c in all samples and complete absence of cytochrome c expression in the cytosolic fraction of all samples after day 15. Analysis in 200 mg kg-1 diclofenac and ibuprofen-treated groups, revealed expression of cytochrome c in both mitochondrial and cytosolic fractions. This observation indicates that both diclofenac and ibuprofen may alter the morphology of mitochondria, leading to cytochrome c release into the cytosol. Further studies needs to be conducted to investigate on the activity of the mitochondria following both treatments.
 
 
 
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