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Articles by S. E. Higgins
Total Records ( 3 ) for S. E. Higgins
  A. D. Wolfenden , J .L. Vicente , J. P. Higgins , R.L. Andreatti Filho , S. E. Higgins , B. M. Hargis and G. Tellez
  The effect of an organic acid mixture (OA) and a Lactobacillus-based probiotic culture on Salmonella enteritidis (SE) infection in broiler chicks was evaluated. In exp. 1, chicks were challenged by oral gavage with SE, held in chick boxes for 2 h and randomly assigned to either untreated control or continuous OA treatment in the drinking water. Crop and cecal tonsils were cultured at 48 h and 5 d post-challenge for recovery of SE. Recovery of SE in the crop and cecal tonsils at 48 h was significantly (p<0.05) lower in the OA treated group as compared to control chickens but not different at 5d. In exps.2 and 3, chicks were SE challenged, held in chick boxes for 2 h and randomly assigned to either untreated control, probiotic, OA, or probiotic+OA. After 24 or 48 h, crop and cecal tonsils were cultured for the presence or absence of SE. After 24 h, probiotic or probiotic+OA significantly reduced SE recovery from the crop as compared to controls. All treatments reduced SE recovery from the cecal tonsils at 24 h. While no significant differences were observed in SE recovery from crop at 48 h, SE recovery from probiotic and or probiotic+OA groups was significantly lower than the controls in the cecal tonsils. These data suggest that combination treatment with the selected OA and Lactobacillus-based probiotic culture is more effective than individual treatment for Salmonella reduction in chicks.
  A. M. Donoghue , L.R. Bielke , S. E. Higgins , D. J. Donoghue , B. M. Hargis and G. Tellez
  Bacteriophages used to treat infections are typically amplified in a pathogenic host. However, this practice introduces the risk of administering any remaining bacteriophage-resistant pathogen during bacteriophage application if separation techniques are less than perfect. In this study, bacteriophage isolates capable of replicating in both Salmonella and Klebsiella oxytoca were identified and applied to poultry carcasses. These Wide-Host-Range bacteriophages (WHR) were amplified using the non-pathogenic bacteria, Klebsiella oxytoca in tryptic soy broth until a titer of ~109 PFU/mL was obtained. WHR and Klebsiella oxytoca were not separated prior to treatment of carcasses. Fresh processed chicken carcasses were inoculated with either Salmonella enteritidis (SE) or S. typhimurium (ST), sprayed with 5 mL of WHR and rinsed with sterile water. Samples were enriched, plated on XLD agar and evaluated for Salmonella-typical colonies. In four separate trials, WHR significantly reduced the recovery of SE. No SE was detected in two trials and a greater than 70% reduction was seen in the other two trials. ST was also significantly reduced in the two trials in which it was included (p<0.05). These experiments suggest that WHR could be an inexpensive and safe method for the reduction of Salmonella on broiler carcasses.
  L. R. Bielke , S. E. Higgins , A. M. Donoghue , T. Kral , D. J. Donoghue , B.M. Hargis and G. Tellez
  Survival of bacteriophages through the upper gastrointestinal tract (UGIT) and persistence in the lower gastrointestinal tract (LGIT) is essential for treatment of enteric bacterial infections. We have hypothesized that non-pathogenic Alternative Host Bacteria (AHB), originally isolated from poultry cecal samples, could be used to protect bacteriophages during UGIT passage and to provide host cells for continued amplification in the LGIT. We selected two previously-identified Wide Host Range (WHR) bacteriophages (WHR-8 and WHR-10) and their respective AHB for use in the present studies. For each of the bacteriophage-host combinations, combination of the bacteriophage with the AHB prior to oral gavage had little effect on the concentration of recovered bacteriophages from the cecal contents during the three days post-administration. Furthermore, continuous administration of the AHB in the drinking water had little effect on intestinal bacteriophage recovery during the three days of evaluation. Bacteriophages were also tested for differences in anaerobic and aerobic lysis of Salmonella enteritidis as a possible reason for decreased persistence in the LGIT. Differences in lysis between anaerobic and aerobic environments were significant, however levels were not likely different enough to have significant in vitro effects. These results suggest that selection of AHB to protect or amplify enteric bacteriophage populations is not necessarily a simple process. Survival of the AHB and ability of the AHB to replicate in the LGIT of the target animals are among considerations that should be made in future investigations.
 
 
 
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