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Articles by S. C. Lim
Total Records ( 2 ) for S. C. Lim
  S. C. Lim , D. Q. Liying , W. C. Toy , M. Wong , L. Y. Yeoh , C. Tan , D. Lau , C. Tan , T. Subramaniam and C. F. Sum
  Objective  A substantial proportion of diabetic nephropathy individuals are non-albuminuric. Using a proteomic approach, we searched for novel urinary biomarkers.

Methods  We studied three groups (n = 6 per group) of males with Type 2 diabetes: (1) normal renal function; (2) classical diabetic nephropathy (urinary albumin-creatinine ratio > 1000 mg/g and glomerular filtration rate < 60 ml/min.1.73 m2) and (3) non-albuminuric diabetic nephropathy (glomerular filtration rate < 60 ml/min.1.73 m2 and urinary albumi-creatinine ratio < 30 mg/g). We used two-dimensional fluorescence differential gel electrophoresis, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry peptide identification and western blot validation in the study.

Results  Sixty protein spots were differentially abundant between the non-albuminuric and macro-albuminuric subjects (> 2.5-fold, P < 0.05). In the non-albuminuric subjects, in addition to previously reported α1-microglobulin, the next most interesting spot (upregulated 3.44-fold, P = 0.0026) was human zinc-α2-glycoprotein, a novel adipose-cytokine associated with glomerular injury. This was confirmed by western blot and replicated in female diabetic nephropathy subjects.

Conclusions  From our preliminary results, human zinc-α2-glycoprotein may be a novel urinary biomarker for non-albuminuric diabetic nephropathy.

  S. Pek , S. Tavintharan , K. Woon , J. Niyati , S. C. Lim and C. F. Sum


To measure serum pigment epithelium-derived factor in control subjects with normal fasting glucose, and in subjects with impaired fasting glucose and those with newly diagnosed Type 2 diabetes, before treatment initiation, and to measure pigment epithelium-derived factor prospectively in patients being treated with HDL-raising therapy, niacin.


We enrolled 89 individuals attending an institutional health screen. Biochemical indices including lipids, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and pigment epithelium-derived factor were analysed in fasting blood. To validate the association between HDL and pigment epithelium-derived factor, we analysed samples from a separate study cohort with low HDL, followed up for 12-weeks while on niacin treatment. Secreted pigment epithelium-derived factor from 3T3-L1 adipocytes, after HDL treatment (24-h), was measured using Western blot analysis.


Mean (± sd) serum pigment epithelium-derived factor was significantly higher in subjects with impaired fasting glucose [13.99 (± 3.06) μg/ml] and Type 2 diabetes [12.94 (± 2.61)] μg/ml, compared with control subjects [11.83 (± 2.85) μg/ml (P = 0.014)]. In multivariate analyses, serum pigment epithelium-derived factor concentration was associated with BMI (β = 0.32, 0.007), homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (β = 0.33, P = 0.01) and HDL (β =  −0.24, P = 0.05), after adjustment for age, gender and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. In the niacin study, on-treatment HDL was an independent determinant of pigment epithelium-derived factor (β =  −0.439, P = 0.033), after adjusting for age, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance and treatment. Adipocytes treated with HDL were found to have reduced pigment epithelium-derived factor secretion [24.8% (50 μg/ml), 28.4% (100 μg/ml) HDL;< 0.05)], compared with the control samples.


Serum pigment epithelium-derived factor is positively associated with homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance and negatively associated with HDL. Further studies are needed to understand the mechanism of low HDL and raised pigment epithelium-derived factor and to determine if they are causally related to the pathobiology of insulin resistance.

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