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Articles by S. Buhari
Total Records ( 2 ) for S. Buhari
  S. Buhari , H. Kalthum , Y.M. Goh and S.H. Gan
  Surgery and anesthesia causes fluctuations in hemodynamics which can lead to subtherapeutic drug levels and usually therapeutic failure, making postsurgical pain management difficult. The influence of surgery and anesthesia on the pharmacokinetics of intravenous tramadol in dogs was investigated. Tramadol (3 mg kg-1) was administered during premedication to female dogs (n = 6) undergoing ovariohysterectomy (Group 1) and to another non-surgery group (n = 6) of female dogs (Group 2) and the pharmacokinetics were compared between the groups. The outcome of this study showed that surgery and anesthesia affected the pharmacokinetics of tramadol, as indicated by a two-fold increase in the elimination half-life (1.10±0.18 h in Group 1 compared to 0.49±0.07 h in Group 2) and a three-fold increase in the area under the curve (770.21±117.76 ng.h mL-1 for Group 1 compared to 117.61±85.16 ng.h mL-1 for Group 2). Clearance was also significantly lower (3.98±0.56 mL min-1 kg-1) in Group 1 than in Group 2 (21.06±9.34 mL kg-1). Serum levels of both interleukin-6 and β-endorphin were increased at 6 and 9 h in the surgery group which further indicates that the rapid metabolism and clearance of tramadol in dogs are correlated with postsurgical pain. Therefore, re-administration of tramadol at 3 h is necessary for pain control. This suggests that surgery has a significant effect on the pharmacokinetics of tramadol in dogs.
  S. Buhari , H. Kalthum , Y.M. Goh , M.M. Noordin , H.C. Chen and S.H. Gan
  Effect of single and repeated doses of tramadol on hepatic and renal functions and on pentobarbitone anesthesia was evaluated in dogs. Twenty five dogs were randomly distributed into five equal groups viz groups I and II received 3 mg kg-1 of tramadol by subcutaneous and intravenous injections, respectively during premedication alone. Groups III and IV received similar doses of tramadol during premedication which was repeated 2 h after the initial dose thorough subcutaneous and intravenous injections, respectively. Group V served as negative control. Blood samples (2 mL) were taken at 0, 2 and 4 h after tramadol’s administration while liver and kidney biopsies were taken before the surgery ended. Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) and Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST) levels were significantly lowered in groups II-IV when compared to the group V at 4 h. Significant increase in AST was observed in groups I, III and V at 2 h and at 4 h in groups I and V. No significant change in kidney profile. Histopathological changes in the liver and kidney biopsies are mainly congestion, edema and cellular infiltration which occurred less frequently in groups III and IV. The volume of pentobarbitone was significantly lowered in groups III and IV. It is concluded that repeated administrations of tramadol at 3 mg kg-1, IV or SC is safe at a frequency of 2 h interval during surgery without causing irreversible hepatic and renal damage and reduced the required dose of pentobarbitone needed to maintain anaesthesia in healthy dogs.
 
 
 
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