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Articles by S. Y Kim
Total Records ( 12 ) for S. Y Kim
  S. H Park , S. Y Kim , S. S Lee , L Bogoni , A. Y Kim , S. K Yang , S. J Myung , J. S Byeon , B. D Ye and H. K. Ha
 

OBJECTIVE. The purpose of our study was to determine the sensitivity of CT colonography (CTC) interpreted by human readers and with computer-aided detection (CAD) for genuinely nonpolypoid colorectal lesions, defined as 2 mm or less in lesion height at colonoscopy.

MATERIALS AND METHODS. A computerized database search for a 33-month period found 21 patients who had undergone both colonoscopy and CTC and who had a total of 23 genuinely nonpolypoid colorectal lesions: eight adenomas (9-30 mm in width), 10 stage Tis or T1 adenocarcinomas (10-25 mm), and five nonadenomatous lesions (8-20 mm). CTC was performed using a cathartic preparation and fecal tagging and was interpreted by experienced readers in a blinded manner using a primary 3D method and with CAD.

RESULTS. The sensitivities of human readers for nonpolypoid adenomatous lesions (i.e., both adenomas and adenocarcinomas), adenocarcinomas, and nonadenomatous lesions were 66.7% (12/18), 90% (9/10), and 0% (0/5), respectively. Sensitivities were 55.6% (10/18), 90% (9/10), and 0% (0/5) for CAD. A 10-mm stage T1 adenocarcinoma was missed by a human reader on blinded review but was detected with CAD. Both human readers and CAD yielded significantly higher sensitivity for adenomatous lesions than for nonadenomatous lesions (p = 0.014 and 0.046, respectively) and for adenocarcinomas than for noncancerous lesions (p = 0.003 and 0.0001, respectively).

CONCLUSION. CTC showed a high sensitivity for nonpolypoid stage Tis and T1 adenocarcinomas 10 mm or greater in width despite the limited overall sensitivity for nonpolypoid adenomatous lesions, when performed using cathartic preparation and fecal tagging.

  H Seo , K. H Lee , H. J Kim , K Kim , S. B Kang , S. Y Kim and Y. H. Kim
 

OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study was to compare low-dose unenhanced CT with standard-dose IV contrast-enhanced CT in the diagnosis of appendicitis.

MATERIALS AND METHODS. Two hundred seven adults with suspected appendicitis underwent CT with mean effective doses of both 4.2 and 8.0 mSv. Two radiologists retrospectively reviewed thin-section images by sliding a 5-mm-thick ray-sum slab. They rated the likelihood of appendicitis and appendiceal visualization on 5- and 3-point scales, respectively, and proposed alternative diagnoses. Likelihood ≥ 3 was considered a positive diagnosis. Receiver operating characteristics analysis, the McNemar test, and the Wilcoxon's signed-rank test were used.

RESULTS. Seventy-eight patients had appendicitis. The values of the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve were 0.98 for the low-dose unenhanced acquisition and 0.97 for the standard-dose contrast-enhanced acquisition for reader 1 (95% CI for the difference, -0.02 to 0.03) and 0.99 and 0.98 (-0.02 to 0.02) for reader 2. Sensitivity was 98.7% for low-dose unenhanced CT and 100% for standard-dose contrast-enhanced CT for reader 1 (p = 1.00) and 100% for both techniques for reader 2. Specificity was 95.3% and 93.0% (p = 0.25) and 96.9% and 96.9%. The interpretation was indeterminate (score 3) in 0.5% and 1.4% of cases for reader 1 (p = 0.63) and 0.5% and 0% for reader 2 (p = 1.00). A normal appendix was not visualized in 5.4% and 3.9% of cases by reader 1 (p = 0.63) and 3.9% and 2.3% of cases by reader 2 (p = 0.50). None of the patients whose appendix was not visualized had appendicitis. Diagnostic confidence, visualization score for a normal appendix, and correct alternative diagnosis tended to be compromised with use of low-dose unenhanced CT, showing a significant difference for a reader's confidence in the diagnosis of appendicitis (p = 0.004). The two techniques were comparable in the diagnosis of appendiceal perforation.

CONCLUSION. Low-dose unenhanced CT is potentially useful in the diagnosis of appendicitis.

  S. Y Kim , J. E Cho , J. Y Hong , B. N Koo , J. M Kim and H. K. Kil
  Background

The administration of low-dose bupivacaine can limit the distribution of spinal block to reduce adverse haemodynamic effects. Intrathecal opioids can enhance analgesia in combination with subtherapeutic doses of local anaesthetics. We aimed at comparing the efficacy of intrathecal fentanyl and sufentanil with low-dose diluted bupivacaine for transurethral prostatectomy (TURP) in elderly patients.

Methods

Seventy patients undergoing TURP were randomly allocated into two groups. Group F (n=35) received fentanyl 25 µg+bupivacaine 0.5% (0.8 ml)+normal saline 0.3 ml and Group S (n=35) received sufentanil 5 µg+bupivacaine 0.5% (0.8 ml)+normal saline 0.7 ml—in total, bupivacaine 0.25% (1.6 ml) intrathecally. Onset and duration of the sensory block, the degree of the motor block, side-effects, and the perioperative analgesic requirements were assessed.

Results

The median peak level of the sensory block was significantly higher in Group S than in Group F (P=0.049). Group S required fewer perioperative analgesics than Group F (P=0.008). The time to the first analgesic request was longer in Group S (P=0.025). There were no differences between the groups for the onset and recovery time of the sensory block, degree of the motor block, quality of anaesthesia, or adverse effects.

Conclusions

Low-dose diluted bupivacaine with fentanyl 25 µg or sufentanil 5 µg can provide adequate anaesthesia without haemodynamic instability for TURP in elderly patients. However, sufentanil was superior to fentanyl in the quality of the spinal block produced.

  A Sekulic , S. Y Kim , G Hostetter , S Savage , J. G Einspahr , A Prasad , P Sagerman , C Curiel Lewandrowski , R Krouse , G. T Bowden , J Warneke , D. S Alberts , M. R Pittelkow , D DiCaudo , B. J Nickoloff , J. M Trent and M. Bittner
 

Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) occurs commonly and can metastasize. Identification of specific molecular aberrations and mechanisms underlying the development and progression of cutaneous SCC may lead to better prognostic and therapeutic approaches and more effective chemoprevention strategies. To identify genetic changes associated with early stages of cutaneous SCC development, we analyzed a series of 40 archived skin tissues ranging from normal skin to invasive SCC. Using high-resolution array-based comparative genomic hybridization, we identified deletions of a region on chromosome 10q harboring the INPP5A gene in 24% of examined SCC tumors. Subsequent validation by immunohistochemistry on an independent sample set of 71 SCC tissues showed reduced INPP5A protein levels in 72% of primary SCC tumors. Decrease in INPP5A protein levels seems to be an early event in SCC development, as it also is observed in 9 of 26 (35%) examined actinic keratoses, the earliest stage in SCC development. Importantly, further reduction of INPP5A levels is seen in a subset of SCC patients as the tumor progresses from primary to metastatic stage. The observed frequency and pattern of loss indicate that INPP5A, a negative regulator of inositol signaling, may play a role in development and progression of cutaneous SCC tumors. Cancer Prev Res; 3(10); 1277–83. ©2010 AACR.

  S. M Ahn , T. H Kim , S Lee , D Kim , H Ghang , D. S Kim , B. C Kim , S. Y Kim , W. Y Kim , C Kim , D Park , Y. S Lee , S Kim , R Reja , S Jho , C. G Kim , J. Y Cha , K. H Kim , B Lee , J Bhak and S. J. Kim
 

We present the first Korean individual genome sequence (SJK) and analysis results. The diploid genome of a Korean male was sequenced to 28.95-fold redundancy using the Illumina paired-end sequencing method. SJK covered 99.9% of the NCBI human reference genome. We identified 420,083 novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are not in the dbSNP database. Despite a close similarity, significant differences were observed between the Chinese genome (YH), the only other Asian genome available, and SJK: (1) 39.87% (1,371,239 out of 3,439,107) SNPs were SJK-specific (49.51% against Venter's, 46.94% against Watson's, and 44.17% against the Yoruba genomes); (2) 99.5% (22,495 out of 22,605) of short indels (< 4 bp) discovered on the same loci had the same size and type as YH; and (3) 11.3% (331 out of 2920) deletion structural variants were SJK-specific. Even after attempting to map unmapped reads of SJK to unanchored NCBI scaffolds, HGSV, and available personal genomes, there were still 5.77% SJK reads that could not be mapped. All these findings indicate that the overall genetic differences among individuals from closely related ethnic groups may be significant. Hence, constructing reference genomes for minor socio-ethnic groups will be useful for massive individual genome sequencing.

  S. G Yeo , D. Y Kim , T. H Kim , S. Y Kim , H. J Chang , J. W Park , H. S Choi and J. H. Oh
  Objective

To investigate the long-term outcomes of selected patients with cT3 distal rectal cancer treated with local excision following pre-operative chemoradiotherapy.

Methods

Between January 2003 and February 2008, 11 patients with cT3 distal rectal cancer received a local excision following pre-operative chemoradiotherapy. The median age of the patients was 61 years (range, 42–71). The median tumor size was 3 cm (range, 2–5), and the median distance of the caudal tumor edge from the anal verge was 3 cm (range, 1–4). Clinical lymph node status was positive in five patients. Pre-operative chemoradiotherapy consisted of a 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions with concurrent chemotherapy. A transanal full-thickness local excision was performed after a median of 54 days (range, 31–90) from chemoradiotherapy completion. Ten patients received post-operative chemotherapy.

Results

Pathologically complete responses occurred in eight patients, ypT1 in two and ypT2 in one. The pathologic tumor size for three ypT1–2 tumors was 0.9, 1.1 and 2.2 cm. The follow-up period was a median of 59 months (range, 24–85). One patient (ypT0) developed recurrence at the excision site 14 months after surgery, but was successfully salvaged with an abdominoperineal resection and adjuvant chemotherapy. Another patient (ypT2) developed bone metastasis after 8 months and died of the disease. The 5-year local recurrence-free, disease-free and overall survival rates were 90.9%, 81.8% and 88.9%, respectively. No Grade 3 or worse gastrointestinal toxicity was detected.

Conclusions

Full-thickness local excision following chemoradiotherapy may be an acceptable option for cT3 distal rectal cancer that responds well to chemoradiotherapy.

  C. S Shin , S. Y Kim and W. K. Huh
  Chun-Shik Shin, Sun Young Kim, and Won-Ki Huh

The target of rapamycin (TOR) signaling pathway plays crucial roles in the regulation of eukaryotic cell growth. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, nitrogen sources in the extracellular environment activate the TOR signaling pathway. However, the precise mechanisms underlying the regulation of TOR activity in response to extracellular nitrogen sources are poorly understood. Here, we report that degradation of Stp1, a transcription factor for amino acid uptake and a key effector of the SPS amino-acid-sensing pathway, is controlled by TOR activity in S. cerevisiae. Using a genome-wide protein localization study, we found that Stp1 disappeared from the nucleus upon inactivation of TOR complex 1 (TORC1) by rapamycin, suggesting the involvement of Stp1 in the TOR signaling pathway. Supporting this notion, a knockout mutant for the STP1 gene was found to be hypersensitive to rapamycin, and overexpression of STP1 conferred resistance to rapamycin. Interestingly, we found that the rapamycin-induced disappearance of Stp1 from...

  S. Y Kim , S Lee , S. W Hong , B. H Min , K. U Lee , M Bendayan and I. S. Park
 

Nestin, which was initially identified as a marker of neural stem cells, has been reported in regenerating pancreas as well as in early embryonic stem (ES) cell derivatives. However, little is known about its specific roles in stem cells as a functional regulator. We investigated the source of the action of nestin in ES and adult pancreatic ductal stem (PDS) cells in regard to the neogenesis of insulin-secreting β-cells. In ES cells, suppression of nestin by gene silencing led to an increased expression of the pluripotency-associated genes, including Oct 4, Nanog, and SSEA-1, before embryoid body (EB) formation, whereas it reduced endodermal and pancreatic transcription factors in EBs. Inhibition of nestin expression in adult PDS cells caused a low expression of pancreatic transcription factors and islet hormones, leading to poor β-cell development and insulin secretion. These data may indicate not only that nestin is a simple stem cell marker, but also that it constitutes a functional factor at the time of stem cell differentiation. We suggest that nestin plays pivotal roles as an intermediate regulator governing both stemness and differentiation of stem cells in the process of their differentiation into insulin-secreting cells. (J Histochem Cytochem 58:567–576, 2010)

  T. B Baker , R. B Weiss , D Bolt , A von Niederhausern , M. C Fiore , D. M Dunn , M. E Piper , N Matsunami , S. S Smith , H Coon , W. M McMahon , M. B Scholand , N Singh , J. R Hoidal , S. Y Kim , M. F Leppert and D. S. Cannon
  Introduction:

Previous research revealed significant associations between haplotypes in the CHRNA5-A3-B4 subunit cluster and scores on the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence among individuals reporting daily smoking by age 17. The present study used subsamples of participants from that study to investigate associations between the CHRNA5-A3-B4 haplotypes and an array of phenotypes not analyzed previously (i.e., withdrawal severity, ability to stop smoking, and specific scales on the Wisconsin Inventory of Smoking Dependence Motives (WISDM-68) that reflect loss of control, strong craving, and heavy smoking.

Methods:

Two cohorts of current or former smokers (N = 886) provided both self-report data and DNA samples. One sample (Wisconsin) comprised smokers making a quit smoking attempt, which permitted the assessment of withdrawal and relapse during the attempt. The other sample (Utah) comprised participants studied for risk factors for nicotine dependence and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and included individuals originally recruited in the Lung Health Study.

Results:

The CHRNA5-A3-B4 haplotypes were significantly associated with the targeted WISDM-68 scales (Tolerance, Craving, Loss of Control) in both samples of participants but only among individuals who began smoking early in life. The haplotypes were significantly associated with relapse likelihood and withdrawal severity, but these associations showed no evidence of an interaction with age at daily smoking.

Discussion:

The CHRNA5-A3-B4 haplotypes are associated with a broad range of nicotine dependence phenotypes, but these associations are not consistently moderated by age at initial smoking.

  T Reding , U Wagner , A. B Silva , L K Sun , M Bain , S. Y Kim , D Bimmler and R. Graf
 

The pathophysiology of human chronic pancreatitis is not well understood and difficult to follow on a molecular basis. Therefore, we used a rat model [Wistar-Bonn/Kobori (WBN/Kob)] that exhibits spontaneous chronic inflammation and fibrosis in the pancreas. Using microarrays we compared gene expression patterns in the pancreas during development of inflammation and fibrosis of WBN/Kob rats with age-matched healthy Wistar rats. The extracellular matrix protein SPARC (secreted protein, acidic, and rich in cysteines) and other transcripts of inflammatory genes were quantified by real-time PCR, and some were localized by immunohistochemistry. When pancreatic inflammation becomes obvious at the age of 16 wk, several hundred genes are increased between 3- and 50-fold in WBN/Kob rats compared with healthy Wistar rats. Proteins produced by acinar cells and characteristic for inflammation, e.g., pancreatitis-associated protein, are highly upregulated. Other proteins, derived from infiltrating inflammatory cells and from activated stellate cells (fibrosis) such as collagens and fibronectins are also significantly upregulated. SPARC was localized to acinar cells where it increased in the vicinity of inflammatory foci. However, acinar expression of SPARC was lost during destruction of acinar cells. In human pancreatic specimens with chronic pancreatitis, SPARC exhibited a similar expression profile. During chronic inflammation and fibrosis in the WBN/Kob rat, inflammatory genes, growth factors, and structural genes exhibit a high increase of expression. A temporal profile including pre- and postinflammatory phases indicates a concurrent activation of inflammatory and fibrotic changes. Inflammation dependent expression of SPARC appears to be lost during acinar-to-duct metaplasia both in rat and human pancreas.

  Y. J Park , J. W Yoon , K. I Kim , Y. J Lee , K. W Kim , S. H Choi , S Lim , D. J Choi , K. H Park , J. H Choh , H. C Jang , S. Y Kim , B. Y Cho and C. Lim
  Background

Some studies have proposed that subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) has adverse effects on the cardiovascular system, but little is known about the effect on patients undergoing cardiovascular operations. We examined the influence of preoperative SCH on postoperative outcome in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG).

Methods

Among patients who underwent CABG between July 2005 and June 2007 at Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, 224 with normal thyroid function and 36 with SCH were enrolled. Preoperative risks and postoperative outcomes were evaluated prospectively without thyroid hormone replacement.

Results

There were no significant differences in primary outcomes (major adverse cardiovascular events) and secondary outcomes such as wound problems, mediastinitis, leg infection, respiratory complications, delirium, or reoperation during the same hospitalization. However, patients with SCH had a higher incidence of postoperative atrial fibrillation than those with normal thyroid function after adjustment for age, gender, body mass index, and other independent variables such as emergency operation, the use of cardiopulmonary bypass, combined valvular operation, preoperative creatinine levels, left ventricular systolic dysfunction, and nonuse of β-blockers (45.5% vs 29%; odds ratio, 2.552; 95% confidence interval, 1.117 to 5.830; p = 0.026).

Conclusions

SCH appears to influence the postoperative outcome for patients by increasing the development of postoperative atrial fibrillation. However, it is still unproven whether preoperative thyroxine replacement therapy for patients with SCH might prevent postoperative atrial fibrillation after CABG.

  A Sato , M Mishima , A Nagai , S. Y Kim , Y Ito , T Hakoshima , J. G Jee and K. Kitano
 

Bloom syndrome is a rare genetic disorder characterized by severe growth retardation and cancer predisposition. The disease is caused by a loss of function of the Bloom syndrome protein (BLM), a member of the RecQ family of DNA helicases. Here we report on the first 3D structure of a BLM fragment, a solution structure of the C-terminal helicase-and-ribonuclease D-C-terminal (HRDC) domain from human BLM. The structure reveals unique features of BLM HRDC that are distinct from the HRDC domain of Werner syndrome protein. In particular, BLM HRDC retains many acidic residues exposed to the solvent, which makes the domain surface extensively electronegative. Consistent with this, fluorescence polarization assays showed an inability of isolated BLM HRDC to interact with DNA substrates. Analyses employing ultracentrifugation, gel-filtration, CD spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering showed that the BLM HRDC domain exists as a stable monomer in solution. The results show that BLM HRDC is a compact, robust and acidic motif which may play a distinct role apart from DNA binding.

 
 
 
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