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Articles by S. X Zhang
Total Records ( 2 ) for S. X Zhang
  R Shao , S. X Zhang , B Weijdegard , S Zou , E Egecioglu , A Norstrom , M Brannstrom and H. Billig

Human ectopic pregnancy (EP) remains a common cause of pregnancy-related first trimester death. Nitric oxide (NO) is synthesized from L-arginine by three NO synthases (NOS) in different tissues, including the Fallopian tube. Studies of knockout mouse models have improved our understanding of the function of NOS isoforms in reproduction, but their roles and specific mechanisms in infection-induced tubal dysfunction have not been fully elucidated. Here, we provide an overview of the expression, regulation and possible function of NOS isoforms in the Fallopian tube, highlighting the effects of infection-induced changes in the tubal cellular microenvironment (imbalance of NO production) on tubal dysfunction and the potential involvement of NOS isoforms in tubal EP after Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection. The non-equivalent regulation of tubal NOS isoforms during the menstrual cycle suggests that endogenous ovarian steroid hormones regulate NOS in an isoform-specific manner. The current literature suggests that infection with C. trachomatis induces an inflammatory response that eventually leads to tubal epithelial destruction and functional impairment, caused by a high NO output mediated by inducible NOS (iNOS). Therefore, tissue-specific therapeutic approaches to suppress iNOS expression may help to prevent ectopic implantation in patients with prior C. trachomatis infection of the Fallopian tube.

  C. K Kamga , S. X Zhang and Y. Wang

Glutathione transport into mitochondria is mediated by oxoglutarate (OGC) and dicarboxylate carrier (DIC) in the kidney and liver. However, transport mechanisms in brain mitochondria are unknown. We found that both carriers were expressed in the brain. Using cortical mitochondria incubated with physiological levels of glutathione, we found that butylmalonate, a DIC inhibitor, reduced mitochondrial glutathione to levels similar to those seen in mitochondria incubated without extramitochondrial glutathione (59% of control). In contrast, phenylsuccinate, an OGC inhibitor, had no effect (97% of control). Additional experiments with DIC and OGC short hairpin RNA in neuronal-like PC12 cells resulted in similar findings. Significantly, DIC inhibition resulted in increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) content in and H2O2 release from mitochondria. It also led to decreased membrane potential, increased basal respiration rates, and decreased phosphorus-to-oxygen (P/O) ratios, especially when electron transport was initiated from complex I. Accordingly, we found that DIC inhibition impaired complex I activity, but not those for complexes II and III. This impairment was not associated with dislodgment of complex subunits. These results suggest that DIC is the main glutathione transporter in cortical mitochondria and that DIC-mediated glutathione transport is essential for these mitochondria to maintain ROS homeostasis and normal respiratory functions.

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