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Articles by S. V Rao
Total Records ( 3 ) for S. V Rao
  S. K Mehta , A. D Frutkin , J. B Lindsey , J. A House , J. A Spertus , S. V Rao , F. S Ou , M. T Roe , E. D Peterson , S. P Marso and on Behalf of the National Cardiovascular Data Registry
 

Background— Bleeding in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is associated with increased morbidity, mortality, length of hospitalization, and cost. We identified baseline clinical characteristics associated with bleeding complications after PCI and developed a simplified, clinically useful algorithm to predict patient risk.

Methods and Results— Data were analyzed from 302 152 PCI procedures performed at 440 US centers participating in the National Cardiovascular Data Registry. As defined by the National Cardiovascular Data Registry, bleeding required transfusion, prolonged hospital stay, and/or a drop in hemoglobin >3.0 g/dL from any location, including percutaneous entry site, retroperitoneal, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, and other/unknown location. Bleeding complications occurred in 2.4% of patients. From the best-fitting model consisting of 15 clinical elements associated with post-PCI bleeding in a random 80% training cohort, we developed a parsimonious risk algorithm. Predictors of bleeding included age, gender, previous heart failure, glomerular filtration rate, peripheral vascular disease, no previous PCI, New York Heart Association/Canadian Cardiovascular Society Functional Classification class IV heart failure, ST-elevation myocardial infarction, non–ST-elevation myocardial infarction, and cardiogenic shock. The parsimonious model was validated in the remaining 20% of the population (c-statistic, 0.72) and in clinically relevant subgroups of patients. This simplified model was used to derive a clinical risk algorithm, with larger numbers corresponding with greater risk. In 3 categories, bleeding rates were greater in patients with higher estimates (≤7, 0.7%; 8 to 17, 1.8%; ≥18, 5.1%).

Conclusions— This report identifies baseline clinical factors associated with bleeding and proposes a clinically useful algorithm to estimate bleeding risk. This model is potentially actionable in altering therapeutic decision making and improving outcomes in patients undergoing PCI.

  D. T Ko , L Yun , H. C Wijeysundera , C. A Jackevicius , S. V Rao , P. C Austin , J. F Marquis and J. V. Tu
 

Background— Previous data on bleeding after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) have been obtained primarily from randomized trials that focused on in-hospital bleeding. The incidence of late bleeding after PCI, its independent predictors, and its prognostic importance in clinical practice has not been fully addressed.

Methods and Results— We evaluated 22 798 patients aged >65 years who underwent PCI from December 1, 2003, to March 31, 2007, in Ontario, Canada. Cox proportional hazard models were used to determine factors associated with late bleeding, which was defined as hospitalization for bleeding after discharge from the index PCI, and to estimate risk of death or myocardial infarction associated with late bleeding. We found that 2.5% of patients were hospitalized for bleeding in the year after PCI, with 56% of bleeding episodes due to gastrointestinal bleed. The most significant predictor of late bleeding was warfarin use after PCI (hazard ratio [HR], 3.12). Other significant predictors included age (HR, 1.41 per 10 years), male sex (HR, 1.24), cancer (HR, 1.80), previous bleeding (HR, 2.42), chronic kidney disease (HR, 1.93), and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug use (HR, 1.73). After adjusting for baseline covariates, hospitalization for a bleeding episode was associated with a significantly increased 1-year hazard of death or myocardial infarction (HR, 2.39; 95% CI, 1.93 to 2.97) and death (HR, 3.38; 95% CI, 2.60 to 4.40).

Conclusions— Hospitalization for late bleeding after PCI is associated with substantially increased risk of death and myocardial infarction. The use of triple therapy (ie, aspirin, thienopyridine, and warfarin) is associated with the highest risk of late bleeding.

  A. P Amin , S. P Marso , S. V Rao , J Messenger , P. S Chan , J House , K Kennedy , K Robertus , D. J Cohen and E. M. Mahoney
  Background—

Although bivalirudin compared with unfractionated heparin with glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors reduces bleeding and hospitalization costs in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), little is known about the economic impact of bivalirudin versus heparin alone and at what threshold of procedural bleeding risk bivalirudin would be considered cost-effective.

Methods and Results—

A validated model was used to predict risk of major bleeding for 81 628 National Cardiovascular Data Registry (NCDR) CathPCI Registry patients from 2004 to 2006 who received unfractionated heparin only. Costs were derived from multiple sources including wholesale acquisition costs (for drugs) and single-center data (for PCI-related complications). Based on ISAR-REACT 3, we assumed that bivalirudin would reduce the risk of major bleeding by 33% compared with unfractionated heparin alone. A Markov model was used to estimate lost life expectancy associated with a major bleed. Major bleeding was predicted to occur in 2.2% of patients. Bivalirudin for all patients was estimated to increase costs by $571 per patient, yielding cost-effectiveness ratios of $287 473 per bleeding event averted and $1 173 360 per quality-adjusted life-year gained. Bivalirudin was cost saving for patients with a predicted bleeding risk >20% (0.16% of CathPCI population). At willingness-to-pay thresholds of $50K and $100K per quality-adjusted life-year gained, bivalirudin was cost-effective for patients with a bleeding risk ≥8% (2.5% patients) and ≥5% (7.9% patients), respectively.

Conclusions—

This decision-analytic modeling study demonstrates that for patients undergoing PCI, substitution of bivalirudin for unfractionated heparin monotherapy is projected to increase costs for virtually all patients and would be considered cost-effective for only a minority of patients with a high bleeding risk. From a policy standpoint, studies such as this, aimed at identifying the appropriate risk threshold for initiating treatment, may help in the development of informed guidelines for the use of expensive therapies.

 
 
 
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