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Articles by S. V Faraone
Total Records ( 3 ) for S. V Faraone
  E. M Valera , J Biederman , S. V Faraone , N Makris , M. C Monuteaux , S Whitfield Gabrieli , M Vitulano , M Schiller and L. J. Seidman
  Objective

Although attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults is associated with significant morbidity and dysfunction and afflicts both sexes, relatively few imaging studies have examined female subjects and none have had sufficient power to adequately examine sex differences. The authors examined sex differences in the neural functioning of adults with ADHD during performance of a verbal working memory task.

Method

The participants were 44 adults with ADHD matched on age, sex, and estimated IQ to 49 comparison subjects. Accuracy and reaction time on an N-back task were measured to assess working memory. The blood-oxygen-level-dependent functional MRI response was used as a measure of neural activity.

Results

A group-by-sex analysis of variance showed no between-group differences in either reaction time or percent correct for the working memory task. For both sexes combined, the adults with ADHD showed less activity than comparison subjects in prefrontal regions. However, sex-by-group analyses revealed an interaction, such that male ADHD subjects showed significantly less activity in right frontal, temporal, and subcortical regions and left occipital and cerebellar regions relative to male comparison subjects, whereas female ADHD subjects showed no differences from female comparison subjects. Exploratory correlation analyses revealed negative associations between working-memory-related activation and number of hyperactive symptoms for men and number of inattentive symptoms for women.

Conclusions

Male but not female adults with ADHD showed significantly altered patterns of neural activity during a verbal working memory task. Men and women showed different associations between neural activity and ADHD symptoms.

  J Kuntsi , A. C Wood , F Rijsdijk , K. A Johnson , P Andreou , B Albrecht , A Arias Vasquez , J. K Buitelaar , G McLoughlin , N. N. J Rommelse , J. A Sergeant , E. J Sonuga Barke , H Uebel , J. J van der Meere , T Banaschewski , M Gill , I Manor , A Miranda , F Mulas , R. D Oades , H Roeyers , A Rothenberger , H. C Steinhausen , S. V Faraone and P. Asherson
 

Context  Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with widespread cognitive impairments, but it is not known whether the apparent multiple impairments share etiological roots or separate etiological pathways exist. A better understanding of the etiological pathways is important for the development of targeted interventions and for identification of suitable intermediate phenotypes for molecular genetic investigations.

Objectives  To determine, by using a multivariate familial factor analysis approach, whether 1 or more familial factors underlie the slow and variable reaction times, impaired response inhibition, and choice impulsivity associated with ADHD.

Design  An ADHD and control sibling-pair design.

Setting  Belgium, Germany, Ireland, Israel, Spain, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom.

Participants  A total of 1265 participants, aged 6 to 18 years: 464 probands with ADHD and 456 of their siblings (524 with combined-subtype ADHD), and 345 control participants.

Main Outcome Measures  Performance on a 4-choice reaction time task, a go/no-go inhibition task, and a choice-delay task.

Results  The final model consisted of 2 familial factors. The larger factor, reflecting 85% of the familial variance of ADHD, captured 98% to 100% of the familial influences on mean reaction time and reaction time variability. The second, smaller factor, reflecting 13% of the familial variance of ADHD, captured 62% to 82% of the familial influences on commission and omission errors on the go/no-go task. Choice impulsivity was excluded in the final model because of poor fit.

Conclusions  The findings suggest the existence of 2 familial pathways to cognitive impairments in ADHD and indicate promising cognitive targets for future molecular genetic investigations. The familial distinction between the 2 cognitive impairments is consistent with recent theoretical models—a developmental model and an arousal-attention model—of 2 separable underlying processes in ADHD. Future research that tests the familial model within a developmental framework may inform developmentally sensitive interventions.

  R. C Kessler , J. G Green , L. A Adler , R. A Barkley , S Chatterji , S. V Faraone , M Finkelman , L. L Greenhill , M. J Gruber , M Jewell , L. J Russo , N. A Sampson and D. L. Van Brunt
 

Context  Controversy exists about the appropriate criteria for a diagnosis of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

Objective  To examine the structure and symptoms most predictive of DSM-IV adult ADHD.

Design  The data are from clinical interviews in enriched subsamples of the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (n = 131) and a survey of a large managed health care plan (n = 214). The physician-administered Adult ADHD Clinical Diagnostic Scale (ACDS) was used to assess childhood ADHD and expanded symptoms of current adult ADHD. Analyses examined the stability of symptoms from childhood to adulthood, the structure of adult ADHD, and the adult symptoms most predictive of current clinical diagnoses.

Setting  The ACDS was administered telephonically by clinical research interviewers with extensive experience in the diagnosis and treatment of adult ADHD.

Participants  An enriched sample of community respondents.

Main Outcome Measure  Diagnoses of DSM-IV /ACDS adult ADHD.

Results  Almost half of the respondents (45.7%) who had childhood ADHD continued to meet the full DSM-IV criteria for current adult ADHD, with 94.9% of these patients having current attention-deficit disorder and 34.6% having current hyperactivity disorder. Adult persistence was much greater for inattention than for hyperactivity/impulsivity. Additional respondents met the full criteria for current adult ADHD despite not having met the full childhood criteria. A 3-factor structure of adult symptoms included executive functioning (EF), inattention/hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Stepwise logistic regression found EF problems to be the most consistent and discriminating predictors of adult DSM-IV /ACDS ADHD.

Conclusions  These findings document the greater persistence of inattentive than of hyperactive/impulsive childhood symptoms of ADHD in adulthood but also show that inattention is not specific to ADHD because it is strongly associated with other adult mental disorders. In comparison, EF problems are more specific and consistently important predictors of DSM-IV adult ADHD despite not being in the DSM-IV, suggesting that the number of EF symptoms should be increased in the DSM-V/ICD-11.

 
 
 
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