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Articles by S. T Chen
Total Records ( 4 ) for S. T Chen
  G. S Hwang , S. T Chen , T. J Chen and S. W. Wang
 

The aim of this study was to explore the effect and action mechanisms of intermittent hypoxia on the production of testosterone both in vivo and in vitro. Male rats were housed in a hypoxic chamber (12% O2 + 88% N2, 1.5 l/ml) 8 h/day for 4 days. Normoxic rats were used as control. In an in vivo experiment, hypoxic and normoxic rats were euthanized and the blood samples collected. In the in vitro experiment, the enzymatically dispersed rat Leydig cells were prepared and challenged with forskolin (an adenylyl cyclase activator, 10–4 M), 8-Br-cAMP (a membrane-permeable analog of cAMP, 10–4 M), hCG (0.05 IU), the precursors of the biosynthesis testosterone, including 25-OH-C (10–5 M), pregnenolone (10–7 M), progesterone (10–7 M), 17-OH-progesterone (10–7 M), and androstendione (10–7-10–5 M), nifedipine (L-type Ca2+ channel blocker, 10–6-10–4 M), nimodipine (L-type Ca2+ channel blocker, 10–5 M), tetrandrine (L-type Ca2+ channel blocker, 10–5 M), and NAADP (calcium-signaling messenger causing release of calcium from intracellular stores, 10–6-10–4 M). The concentrations of testosterone in plasma and medium were measured by radioimmunoassay. The level of plasma testosterone in hypoxic rats was higher than that in normoxic rats. Enhanced testosterone production was observed in rat Leydig cells treated with hCG, 8-Br-cAMP, or forskolin in both normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Intermittent hypoxia resulted in a further increase of testosterone production in response to the testosterone precursors. The activity of 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase was stimulated by the treatment of intermittent hypoxia in vitro. The intermittent hypoxia-induced higher production of testosterone was accompanied with the influx of calcium via L-type calcium channel and the increase of intracellular calcium via the mechanism of calcium mobilization. These results suggested that the intermittent hypoxia stimulated the secretion of testosterone at least in part via stimulatory actions on the activities of adenylyl cyclase, cAMP, L-type calcium channel, and steroidogenic enzymes.

  J. C Yu , S. l Ding , C. H Chang , S. H Kuo , S. T Chen , G. C Hsu , H. M Hsu , M. F Hou , L. Y Jung , C. W Cheng , P. E Wu and C. Y. Shen
 

Tumor levels of the cell cycle regulators cyclin E and p27 correlate strongly with survival in breast cancer patients and are specifically regulated by the ubiquitin ligases hCDC4 and SKP2. This study was to explore whether genetic susceptibility to breast cancer is associated with polymorphism of these genes and whether gene–gene and gene–risk factor [i.e. full-term pregnancy (FTP)] interactions are important in determining cancer risk. A two-stage case–control study based on single-nucleotide polymorphisms was performed. The first study (560 cases and 1122 controls) was to define the contribution of cell cycle and ubiquitin ligase genes to cancer susceptibility. The second study (926 cases and 923 controls) was to confirm the association identified in the first stage and to map the variant alleles. Increased breast cancer risk was associated with both polymorphism of hCDC4 and a joint effect of cyclin E and hCDC4. These associations were more significant in nulliparous women, and cancer risk associated with a lower number of FTPs was only seen in women with a higher number of high-risk genotypes, providing support for an effect of gene–risk factor interaction in determining susceptibility. Sequence variants of intron 2 in hCDC4 were found to be the most significant polymorphism and high-stage estrogen receptor (ER)-negative patients carrying the homozygous variant genotype manifested significantly poorer survival. This study concludes that polymorphism of hCDC4 is a risk factor for breast cancer development by interacting with either cyclin E or FTP and may also prove useful in predicting progression of patients with high-stage and ER-negative breast cancers.

  R. L Milne , J Benitez , H Nevanlinna , T Heikkinen , K Aittomaki , C Blomqvist , J. I Arias , M. P Zamora , B Burwinkel , C. R Bartram , A Meindl , R. K Schmutzler , A Cox , I Brock , G Elliott , M. W. R Reed , M. C Southey , L Smith , A. B Spurdle , J. L Hopper , F. J Couch , J. E Olson , X Wang , Z Fredericksen , P Schurmann , M Bremer , P Hillemanns , T Dork , P Devilee , C. J van Asperen , R. A. E. M Tollenaar , C Seynaeve , P Hall , K Czene , J Liu , Y Li , S Ahmed , A. M Dunning , M Maranian , P. D. P Pharoah , G Chenevix Trench , J Beesley , kConFab Investigators , N. N Antonenkova , I. V Zalutsky , H Anton Culver , A Ziogas , H Brauch , C Justenhoven , Y. D Ko , S Haas , P. A Fasching , R Strick , A. B Ekici , M. W Beckmann , G. G Giles , G Severi , L Baglietto , D. R English , O Fletcher , N Johnson , I dos Santos Silva , J Peto , C Turnbull , S Hines , A Renwick , N Rahman , B. G Nordestgaard , S. E Bojesen , H Flyger , D Kang , K. Y Yoo , D. Y Noh , A Mannermaa , V Kataja , V. M Kosma , M Garcia Closas , S Chanock , J Lissowska , L. A Brinton , J Chang Claude , S Wang Gohrke , C. Y Shen , H. C Wang , J. C Yu , S. T Chen , M Bermisheva , T Nikolaeva , E Khusnutdinova , M. K Humphreys , J Morrison , R Platte , D. F Easton and on behalf of the Breast Cancer Association Consortium
  Background

A recent genome-wide association study identified single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) 2q35-rs13387042 as a marker of susceptibility to estrogen receptor (ER)–positive breast cancer. We attempted to confirm this association using the Breast Cancer Association Consortium.

Methods

2q35-rs13387042 SNP was genotyped for 31 510 women with invasive breast cancer, 1101 women with ductal carcinoma in situ, and 35 969 female control subjects from 25 studies. Odds ratios (ORs) were estimated by logistic regression, adjusted for study. Heterogeneity in odds ratios by each of age, ethnicity, and study was assessed by fitting interaction terms. Heterogeneity by each of invasiveness, family history, bilaterality, and hormone receptor status was assessed by subclassifying case patients and applying polytomous logistic regression. All statistical tests were two-sided.

Results

We found strong evidence of association between rs13387042 and breast cancer in white women of European origin (per-allele OR = 1.12, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.09 to 1.15; Ptrend = 1.0 x 10–19). The odds ratio was lower than that previously reported (P = .02) and did not vary by age or ethnicity (all P ≥ .2). However, it was higher when the analysis was restricted to case patients who were selected for a strong family history (P = .02). An association was observed for both ER-positive (OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.10 to 1.17; P = 10–15) and ER-negative disease (OR = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.04 to 1.15; P = .0003) and both progesterone receptor (PR)–positive (OR = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.11 to 1.19; P = 5 x 10–14) and PR-negative disease (OR = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.06 to 1.15; P = .00002).

Conclusion

The rs13387042 is associated with both ER-positive and ER-negative breast cancer in European women.

  L. J Hsu , L Schultz , Q Hong , K Van Moer , J Heath , M. Y Li , F. J Lai , S. R Lin , M. H Lee , C. P Lo , Y. S Lin , S. T Chen and N. S. Chang
 

Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) initiates multiple signal pathways and activates many downstream kinases. Here, we determined that TGF-β1 bound cell surface hyaluronidase Hyal-2 on microvilli in type II TGF-β receptor-deficient HCT116 cells, as determined by immunoelectron microscopy. This binding resulted in recruitment of proapoptotic WOX1 (also named WWOX or FOR) and formation of Hyal-2·WOX1 complexes for relocation to the nuclei. TGF-β1 strengthened the binding of the catalytic domain of Hyal-2 with the N-terminal Tyr-33-phosphorylated WW domain of WOX1, as determined by time lapse fluorescence resonance energy transfer analysis in live cells, co-immunoprecipitation, and yeast two-hybrid domain/domain mapping. In promoter activation assay, ectopic WOX1 or Hyal-2 alone increased the promoter activity driven by Smad. In combination, WOX1 and Hyal-2 dramatically enhanced the promoter activation (8–9-fold increases), which subsequently led to cell death (>95% of promoter-activated cells). TGF-β1 supports L929 fibroblast growth. In contrast, transiently overexpressed WOX1 and Hyal-2 sensitized L929 to TGF-β1-induced apoptosis. Together, TGF-β1 invokes a novel signaling by engaging cell surface Hyal-2 and recruiting WOX1 for regulating the activation of Smad-driven promoter, thereby controlling cell growth and death.

 
 
 
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