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Articles by S. S Rich
Total Records ( 4 ) for S. S Rich
  A. C Doran , A. B Lehtinen , N Meller , M. J Lipinski , R. P Slayton , S. N Oldham , M. D Skaflen , J Yeboah , S. S Rich , D. W Bowden and C. A. McNamara

Rationale: The gene encoding the helix–loop–helix transcription factor Id3 (inhibitor of differentiation-3) is located within atherosclerosis susceptibility loci of both mice and humans, yet its influence on atherosclerosis is not known.

Objective: The present study sought to determine whether polymorphisms in the ID3 gene were associated with indices of atherosclerosis in humans and if loss of Id3 function modulated atherogenesis in mice.

Methods and Results: Six tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (tagSNPs) in the human ID3 gene were assessed in participants of the Diabetes Heart Study. One tagSNP, rs11574, was independently associated with carotid intima–media thickness (IMT). The human ID3 variant at rs11574 results in an alanine to threonine substitution in the C terminus. To determine the effect of this polymorphism on the basic function of Id3, site-directed mutagenesis of the human ID3 gene at rs11574 was performed. Results demonstrated a significant reduction in coimmunoprecipitation of the known E-protein partner, E12, with Id3 when it contains the sequence encoded by the risk allele (Id3105T). Further, Id3105T had an attenuated ability to modulate E12-mediated transcriptional activation compared to Id3 containing the ancestral allele (Id3105A). Microarray analysis of vascular smooth muscle cells from WT and Id3–/– mice revealed significant modulation of multiple gene pathways implicated in atherogenesis. Moreover, Id3–/–ApoE–/– mice developed significantly more atherosclerosis in response to 32 weeks of Chow or Western diet feeding than Id3+/+ApoE–/– mice.

Conclusions: Taken together, results provide novel evidence that Id3 is an atheroprotective factor and link a common SNP in the human ID3 gene to loss of Id3 function and increased IMT.

  A. C Naj , M West , S. S Rich , W Post , W. H. L Kao , B. A Wasserman , D. M Herrington and A. Rodriguez

Background— Little is known about the association of scavenger receptor class B type I (SCARB1) single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and subclinical atherosclerosis, particularly in subjects of different racial/ethnic backgrounds. We examined this relationship in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

Methods and Results— Forty-three SCARB1-tagging SNPs were genotyped. Baseline examinations included fasting lipids and subclinical atherosclerosis phenotypes (coronary artery calcification, common carotid intimal-medial artery thickness [CCIMT], and internal carotid intimal-medial artery thickness). Examining SNP associations with different subclinical atherosclerosis phenotypes across multiple racial/ethnic groups with adjustment for multiple covariates, we found that the C allele of SNP rs10846744 was associated with higher CCIMT in African American (P=0.03), Chinese (P=0.02), European American (P=0.05), and Hispanic participants (P=0.03) and was strongly associated in pooled analyses (P=0.0002). The results also showed that the association of this SNP with CCIMT was independent of lipids and other well-established cardiovascular risk factors. Stratifying by sex, there seemed to be a strong association of rs10846744 with CCIMT in women, but no genotype-sex interactions were observed.

Conclusions— Variation in SCARB1 at rs10846744 was significantly associated with CCIMT across racial/ethnic groups in Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

  K Musunuru , G Lettre , T Young , D. N Farlow , J. P Pirruccello , K. G Ejebe , B. J Keating , Q Yang , M. H Chen , N Lapchyk , A Crenshaw , L Ziaugra , A Rachupka , E. J Benjamin , L. A Cupples , M Fornage , E. R Fox , S. R Heckbert , J. N Hirschhorn , C Newton Cheh , M. M Nizzari , D. N Paltoo , G. J Papanicolaou , S. R Patel , B. M Psaty , D. J Rader , S Redline , S. S Rich , J. I Rotter , H. A Taylor , R. P Tracy , R. S Vasan , J. G Wilson , S Kathiresan , R. R Fabsitz , E Boerwinkle , S. B Gabriel and for the NHLBI Candidate Gene Association Resource

The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's Candidate Gene Association Resource (CARe), a planned cross-cohort analysis of genetic variation in cardiovascular, pulmonary, hematologic, and sleep-related traits, comprises >40 000 participants representing 4 ethnic groups in 9 community-based cohorts. The goals of CARe include the discovery of new variants associated with traits using a candidate gene approach and the discovery of new variants using the genome-wide association mapping approach specifically in African Americans.

Methods and Results—

CARe has assembled DNA samples for >40 000 individuals self-identified as European American, African American, Hispanic, or Chinese American, with accompanying data on hundreds of phenotypes that have been standardized and deposited in the CARe Phenotype Database. All participants were genotyped for 7 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) selected based on prior association evidence. We performed association analyses relating each of these SNPs to lipid traits, stratified by sex and ethnicity, and adjusted for age and age squared. In at least 2 of the ethnic groups, SNPs near CETP, LIPC, and LPL strongly replicated for association with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations, PCSK9 with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and LPL and APOA5 with serum triglycerides. Notably, some SNPs showed varying effect sizes and significance of association in different ethnic groups.


The CARe Pilot Study validates the operational framework for phenotype collection, SNP genotyping, and analytic pipeline of the CARe project and validates the planned candidate gene study of 2000 biological candidate loci in all participants and genome-wide association study in 8000 African American participants. CARe will serve as a valuable resource for the scientific community.

  M. G Pezzolesi , G. D Poznik , J. C Mychaleckyj , A. D Paterson , M. T Barati , J. B Klein , D. P.K Ng , G Placha , L. H Canani , J Bochenski , D Waggott , M. L Merchant , B Krolewski , L Mirea , K Wanic , P Katavetin , M Kure , P Wolkow , J. S Dunn , A Smiles , W. H Walker , A. P Boright , S. B Bull , Doria the DCCT/EDIC Research Group , J. J Rogus , S. S Rich , J. H Warram and A. S. Krolewski

Despite extensive evidence for genetic susceptibility to diabetic nephropathy, the identification of susceptibility genes and their variants has had limited success. To search for genes that contribute to diabetic nephropathy, a genome-wide association scan was implemented on the Genetics of Kidneys in Diabetes collection.


We genotyped ~360,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 820 case subjects (284 with proteinuria and 536 with end-stage renal disease) and 885 control subjects with type 1 diabetes. Confirmation of implicated SNPs was sought in 1,304 participants of the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT)/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (EDIC) study, a long-term, prospective investigation of the development of diabetes-associated complications.


A total of 13 SNPs located in four genomic loci were associated with diabetic nephropathy with P < 1 x 10–5. The strongest association was at the FRMD3 (4.1 protein ezrin, radixin, moesin [FERM] domain containing 3) locus (odds ratio [OR] = 1.45, P = 5.0 x 10–7). A strong association was also identified at the CARS (cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase) locus (OR = 1.36, P = 3.1 x 10–6). Associations between both loci and time to onset of diabetic nephropathy were supported in the DCCT/EDIC study (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.33, P = 0.02, and HR = 1.32, P = 0.01, respectively). We demonstratedexpression of both FRMD3 and CARS in human kidney.


We identified genetic associations for susceptibility to diabetic nephropathy at two novel candidate loci near the FRMD3 and CARS genes. Their identification implicates previously unsuspected pathways in the pathogenesis of this important late complication of type 1 diabetes.

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