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Articles by S. M. Boekholdt
Total Records ( 2 ) for S. M. Boekholdt
  A. G Semb , T Ueland , P Aukrust , N. J Wareham , R Luben , L Gullestad , J. J.P Kastelein , K. T Khaw and S. M. Boekholdt
 

Objective— The purpose of this study was to examine the association between serum levels of osteoprotegerin (OPG) and receptor activator of nuclear factor-B ligand (RANKL) and future coronary artery disease (CAD) in apparently healthy individuals. The identification of OPG as a novel cardiovascular risk marker suggests an association between mediators of bone homeostasis and cardiovascular disease.

Methods and Results— Serum levels of OPG and RANKL were analyzed in a prospective case–control study nested in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Norfolk) study, a cohort study of 25 663 men and women, where 951 apparently healthy individuals who developed a coronary event during 6 years’ follow-up were matched by sex and age with 1705 healthy controls. Baseline OPG, but not RANKL, was higher in cases than in controls, and OPG was higher in women than in men. Both men and women in the highest OPG quartile had a higher risk for future CAD. These associations were independent of established cardiovascular risk factors, and when using OPG as a continuous variable, also after adjustment for CRP. In contrast, RANKL showed no association with coronary events.

Conclusion— OPG is associated with the risk of future CAD in apparently healthy men and women, independent of established cardiovascular risk factors.

  B. J Arsenault , I Lemieux , J. P Despres , N. J Wareham , E. S. G Stroes , J. J. P Kastelein , K. T Khaw and S. M. Boekholdt
 

Background: Gradient gel electrophoresis (GGE) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy are both widely accepted methods for measuring LDL and HDL particle size. However, whether or not GGE- or NMR-measured LDL or HDL particle size predicts coronary heart disease (CHD) risk to a similar extent is currently unknown.

Methods: We used GGE and NMR to measure LDL and HDL particle size in a nested case-control study of 1025 incident cases of CHD and 1915 controls from the EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition)-Norfolk study. The study sample included apparently healthy men and women age 45–79 years followed for an average of 6 years.

Results: Pearson correlation coefficients showed that the overall agreement between NMR and GGE was better for the measurement of HDL size (r = 0.78) than for LDL size (r = 0.47). The odds ratio for future CHD among participants in the bottom tertile of LDL size (smallest LDL particles) was 1.35 (95% CI, 1.12–1.63) for GGE and 1.74 (1.41–2.15) for NMR. For HDL size, these respective odds ratios were 1.41 (1.16–1.72) and 1.85 (1.47–2.32). After adjustment for potential confounders, the relationship between small LDL or HDL particles and CHD was no longer significant, irrespective of the method.

Conclusions: In this prospective population study, we found that the relationships between NMR-measured LDL and HDL sizes and CHD risk were slightly higher than those obtained with GGE.

 
 
 
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