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Articles by S. L. Buka
Total Records ( 3 ) for S. L. Buka
  J. A. L Donatelli , L. J Seidman , J. M Goldstein , M. T Tsuang and S. L. Buka
  Objective:

It is generally accepted that children of parents with schizophrenia or other forms of psychosis are at heightened risk for a range of behavioral problems. However, it remains unclear whether offspring of parents with different forms of psychosis (e.g., schizophrenia, other nonaffective psychoses, and affective psychoses) have distinct forms of behavioral problems (i.e., internalizing and externalizing).

Method:

Behavioral observations of children of parents with psychosis (N=281) and parents without psychosis (N=185) were conducted at ages 4 and 7 years.

Results:

There were no significant differences between groups in behavior observed at age 4 years. At age 7 years, compared with children of unaffected parents, children of parents with psychosis had an adjusted odds ratio of 2.8 (95% CI=1.5–5.6) for externalizing problems, in particular for children of parents with schizophrenia (adjusted odds ratio=4.4; 95% CI=1.7–12.5). This increase in risk for externalizing problems was observed for female children only (adjusted odds ratio=8.1; 95% CI=2.5–26.3). In contrast, male children were at increased risk for internalizing problems (adjusted odds ratio=3.6; 95% CI=1.6–8.3).

Conclusions:

Children of parents with various forms of psychosis are at risk for internalizing and externalizing problems by age 7 years. This risk varies by gender of the offspring. Implications for treatment of parents with psychotic disorders and high-risk children are discussed.

  C. W Kahler , S. B Daughters , A. M Leventhal , M. L Rogers , M. A Clark , S. M Colby , J Boergers , S. E Ramsey , D. B Abrams , R Niaura and S. L. Buka
  Introduction

A number of personality traits have been associated with cigarette smoking. Current smokers generally show higher levels of negative emotionality and lower levels of behavioral constraint than former smokers and those who never smoked. However, prior investigations have not examined thoroughly whether these smoking–personality associations are unique to smoking status or simply reflect the fact that these personality traits tend to be elevated across numerous forms of psychopathology. Likewise, prior studies have not addressed whether personality shows differential associations with smoking based on the presence or absence of lifetime psychiatric disorders.

Methods

The present study examined these questions using data from 472 current, 311 former, and 324 never-smokers aged 34–44 years.

Results

Current smokers reported being more reactive to stress, more aggressive, more alienated, and less harm avoidant than both former smokers and never-smokers, whereas former smokers and never-smokers showed similar personality profiles overall. Psychiatric disorder history did not interact with smoking status in predicting personality. Controlling for differences in four major lifetime psychiatric disorders (major depression, alcohol dependence, drug dependence, and conduct disorder) reduced the differences in personality traits associated with smoking status. However, smoking status continued to relate uniquely and significantly to higher levels of negative emotionality and behavioral undercontrol with the most robust effect observed for trait alienation.

Discussion

These results provide the most comprehensive depiction to date of interrelations among personality, psychopathology, and smoking and suggest an important role of personality in smoking that is not redundant with or conditional upon lifetime psychopathology.

  H Gardener , D Spiegelman and S. L. Buka
 

Background

The aetiology of autism is unknown, although prenatal exposures have been the focus of epidemiological research for over 40 years.

Aims

To provide the first quantitative review and meta-analysis of the association between maternal pregnancy complications and pregnancy-related factors and risk of autism.

Method

PubMed, Embase and PsycINFO databases were searched for epidemiological studies that examined the association between pregnancy-related factors and autism. Forty studies were eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Summary effect estimates were calculated for factors examined in multiple studies.

Results

Over 50 prenatal factors have been examined. The factors associated with autism risk in the meta-analysis were advanced parental age at birth, maternal prenatal medication use, bleeding, gestational diabetes, being first born v. third or later, and having a mother born abroad. The factors with the strongest evidence against a role in autism risk included previous fetal loss and maternal hypertension, proteinuria, pre-eclampsia and swelling.

Conclusions

There is insufficient evidence to implicate any one prenatal factor in autism aetiology, although there is some evidence to suggest that exposure to pregnancy complications may increase the risk.

 
 
 
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