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Articles by S. L Rauch
Total Records ( 3 ) for S. L Rauch
  D. A Pizzagalli , A. J Holmes , D. G Dillon , E. L Goetz , J. L Birk , R Bogdan , D. D Dougherty , D. V Iosifescu , S. L Rauch and M. Fava

OBJECTIVE: Major depressive disorder is characterized by impaired reward processing, possibly due to dysfunction in the basal ganglia. However, few neuroimaging studies of depression have distinguished between anticipatory and consummatory phases of reward processing. Using functional MRI (fMRI) and a task that dissociates anticipatory and consummatory phases of reward processing, the authors tested the hypothesis that individuals with major depression would show reduced reward-related responses in basal ganglia structures. METHOD: A monetary incentive delay task was presented to 30 unmedicated individuals with major depressive disorder and 31 healthy comparison subjects during fMRI scanning. Whole-brain analyses focused on neural responses to reward-predicting cues and rewarding outcomes (i.e., monetary gains). Secondary analyses focused on the relationship between anhedonic symptoms and basal ganglia volumes. RESULTS: Relative to comparison subjects, participants with major depression showed significantly weaker responses to gains in the left nucleus accumbens and the caudate bilaterally. Group differences in these regions were specific to rewarding outcomes and did not generalize to neutral or negative outcomes, although relatively reduced responses to monetary penalties in the major depression group emerged in other caudate regions. By contrast, evidence for group differences during reward anticipation was weaker, although participants with major depression showed reduced activation to reward cues in a small sector of the left posterior putamen. In the major depression group, anhedonic symptoms and depression severity were associated with reduced caudate volume bilaterally. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that basal ganglia dysfunction in major depression may affect the consummatory phase of reward processing. Additionally, morphometric results suggest that anhedonia in major depression is related to caudate volume.

  L. M Shin , N. B Lasko , M. L Macklin , R. D Karpf , M. R Milad , S. P Orr , J. M Goetz , A. J Fischman , S. L Rauch and R. K. Pitman

Context  Recent neuroimaging research has revealed functional abnormalities in the anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala, and hippocampus in individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

Objective  To determine whether resting functional abnormalities found in PTSD are acquired characteristics or familial risk factors.

Design  Cross-sectional design including identical twins discordant for trauma exposure.

Setting  Academic medical center.

Participants  Combat-exposed veterans with PTSD (n = 14) and their identical co-twins not exposed to combat (n = 14) as well as combat-exposed veterans without PTSD (n = 19) and their identical co-twins not exposed to combat (n = 19).

Main Outcome Measures  We used positron emission tomography and fluorodeoxyglucose 18 to examine resting regional cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (rCMRglu).

Results  Veterans with PTSD and their co-twins had significantly higher resting rCMRglu in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex/midcingulate cortex (dACC/MCC) compared with veterans without PTSD and their co-twins. Resting rCMRglu in the dACC/MCC in unexposed co-twins was positively correlated with combat exposure severity, PTSD symptom severity, and alcohol use in their exposed twins.

Conclusions  Enhanced resting metabolic activity in the dACC/MCC appears to represent a familial risk factor for developing PTSD after exposure to psychological trauma.

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