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Articles by S. K Park
Total Records ( 6 ) for S. K Park
  S. K Park , Y. S Hwang , K. K Park , H. J Park , J. Y Seo and W. Y. Chung

Induction of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 is particularly important for the invasiveness of breast cancers. We investigated the inhibitory effect of kalopanaxsaponin A (KPS-A) on cell invasion and MMP-9 activation in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-treated MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. KPS-A inhibited PMA-induced cell proliferation and invasion. PMA-induced cell invasion was blocked in the presence of a primary antibody of MMP-9, and KPS-A suppressed the increased expression and/or secretion of MMP-9 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1. Using specific inhibitors, we confirmed that PMA-induced cell invasion and MMP-9 expression is primarily regulated by nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-B) activation via phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and activator protein-1 (AP-1) activation via extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2. KPS-A decreased PMA-induced transcriptional activation of NF-B and AP-1 and inhibited PMA-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and Akt. Treatment with the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor rottlerin caused a marked decrease in PMA-induced MMP-9 secretion and cell invasion, as well as ERK/AP-1 activation, and KPS-A reduced PMA-induced membrane localization of PKC. Furthermore, oral administration of KPS-A led to a substantial decrease in tumor volume and expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, MMP-9, TIMP-1 and PKC in mice with MCF-7 breast cancer xenografts in the presence of 17β-estradiol. These results suggest that KPS-A inhibits PMA-induced invasion by reducing MMP-9 activation, mainly via the PI3K/Akt/NF-B and PKC/ERK/AP-1 pathways in MCF-7 cells and blocks tumor growth and MMP-9-mediated invasiveness in mice with breast carcinoma. Therefore, KPS-A may be a promising anti-invasive agent with the advantage of oral dosing.

  J. Y Lee , A. K Park , K. M Lee , S. K Park , S Han , W Han , D. Y Noh , K. Y Yoo , H Kim , S. J Chanock , N Rothman and D. Kang

Objectives: This study was conducted to investigate the role of common variation in innate immunity-related genes as susceptibility factors to breast cancer risk in Korean women. Methods: Total 1536 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 203 genes were analyzed by Illumina GoldenGate assay in 209 cases and the same numbers of controls. Both SNP and gene-based tests were used to evaluate the association with breast cancer risk. The robustness of results was further evaluated with permutation method, false discovery rate and haplotype analyses. Results: Both SNP and gene-based analyses showed promising associations with breast cancer risk for 17 genes: OR10J3, FCER1A, NCF4, CNTNAP1, CTNNB1, KLKB1, ITGB2, ALOX12B, KLK2, IRAK3, KLK4, STAT6, NCF2, CCL1, C1QR1, MBP and NOS1. The most significant association with breast cancer risk was observed for the OR10J3 SNP (rs2494251, P-value = 1.2 x 10–4) and FCER1A SNP (rs7548864, P-value = 7.7 x 10–4). Gene-based permutation and false discovery rate P-values for OR10J3 SNP (rs2494251) with breast cancer risk were also significant (P = 4 x 10–5 and 0.008, respectively). Haplotype analyses supported these findings that OR10J3 and FCER1A were most significantly associated with risk for breast cancer (P = 2 x 10–4 and 0.004, respectively). Conclusion: This study suggests that common genetic variants in the OR10J3 and FCER1A be strongly associated with breast cancer risk among Korean women.

  S. K Park , G Andreotti , A Rashid , J Chen , P. S Rosenberg , K Yu , J Olsen , Y. T Gao , J Deng , L. C Sakoda , M Zhang , M. C Shen , B. S Wang , T. Q Han , B. H Zhang , M Yeager , S. J Chanock and A. W. Hsing

Biliary tract cancer encompasses tumors of the gallbladder, bile duct and ampulla of Vater. Gallbladder cancer is more common in women, whereas bile duct cancer is more common in men, suggesting that sex hormones may play a role in the etiology of these cancers. The intracellular action of estrogens is regulated by the estrogen receptor (ESR); thus, we examined the role of common genetic variants in ESR genes on the risk of biliary tract cancers and stones in a population-based case–control study in Shanghai, China (411 cancer cases, 895 stone cases and 786 controls). We genotyped six single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), four in ESR1 (rs2234693, rs3841686, rs2228480 and rs1801132) and two in ESR2 (rs1256049 and rs4986938). In all participants, the ESR1 rs1801132 (P325P) G allele was associated with excess risks of bile duct [odds ratio (OR) = 1.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1–2.8] and ampulla of Vater cancers (OR = 2.1, 95% CI 0.9–4.9) compared with the CC genotype. The association with bile duct cancer was apparent among men (OR = 2.8, 95% CI 1.4–5.7) but not among women (P-heterogeneity = 0.01). Also, the ESR2 rs4986938 (38 bp 3' of STP) GG genotype was associated with a higher risk of bile duct cancer (OR = 3.3, 95% CI 1.3–8.7) compared with the AA genotype, although this estimate was based on a small number of subjects. None of the other SNPs examined was associated with biliary tract cancers or stones. False discovery rate-adjusted P-values were not significant (P > 0.1). No association was found for ESR1 haplotype based on four SNPs. These preliminary results suggest that variants in ESR genes could play a role in the etiology of biliary tract cancers, especially bile duct cancer in men.

  R Corona , B. O Cowgill , L. M Bogart , M. T Parra , G Ryan , M. N Elliott , S. K Park , J Patch and M. A. Schuster

Objective To explore communication about HIV prevention, risk behaviors, and transmission in families affected by HIV. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 33 parents with HIV, 27 children (9- to 17-years old), and 19 adult children (≥18-years old) across the U.S. Coders reviewed transcripts, identified themes, and coded transcripts. Results Youth felt uncomfortable discussing HIV with their parent who has HIV because they worried about upsetting and reminding the parent of his/her illness. Adult children reported learning about HIV prevention by watching how the illness affected their parents. Few siblings reported talking with one another about HIV because they worried about upsetting their brother/sister and about their sibling unintentionally disclosing the parent's illness to others. Conclusions Discussions between youth and their parent with HIV and their siblings vary, highlighting the need for further research in this area.

  S. K Park , L Amos , A Rao , M. W Quasney , Y Matsumura , N Inagaki and M. K. Dahmer

Mutations in the gene coding for ATP-binding cassette protein A3 (ABCA3) are recognized as a genetic cause of lung disease of varying severity. Characterization of a number of mutant ABCA3 proteins has demonstrated that the mutations generally affect intracellular localization or the ability of the protein to hydrolyze ATP. A novel heterozygous mutation that results in the substitution of cysteine for arginine at amino acid 295 in ABCA3 was identified in a premature infant with chronic respiratory insufficiency and abnormal lamellar bodies. Sequencing of DNA performed in study participants demonstrated that this was a mutation and not a common variant. Plasmid vectors containing ABCA3 with the identified novel mutation tagged with green fluorescent protein on the carboxy terminus were generated. The effect of the mutation on protein function was characterized by examining the glycosylation state of the mutant protein in transiently transfected HEK293 cells and by examining ATP hydrolysis activity of the mutant protein with a vanadate-induced nucleotide trapping assay in stably transfected HEK293 cells. The ABCA3 protein containing the R295C mutation undergoes normal glycosylation and intracellular localization but has dramatically reduced ATP hydrolysis activity (12% of wild type). The identification of one copy of this novel mutation in a premature infant with chronic respiratory insufficiency suggests that ABCA3 haploinsufficiency together with lung prematurity may result in more severe, or more prolonged, respiratory failure.

  S. K Park , D. J Stefanyshyn , B Ramage , D. A Hart and J. L. Ronsky

It has been speculated that the hormonal cycle may be correlated with higher incidence of ACL injury in female athletes, but results have been very contradictory.


Knee joint loads are influenced by knee joint laxity (KJL) during the menstrual cycle.

Study Design

Controlled laboratory study.


Serum samples and KJL were assessed at the follicular, ovulation, and luteal phases in 26 women. Knee joint mechanics (angle, moment, and impulse) were measured and compared at the same intervals. Each of the 26 subjects had a value for knee laxity at each of the 3 phases of their cycle, and these were ordered and designated low, medium, and high for that subject. Knee joint mechanics were then compared between low, medium, and high laxity.


No significant differences in knee joint mechanics were found across the menstrual cycle (no phase effect). However, an increase in KJL was associated with higher knee joint loads during movement (laxity effect). A 1.3-mm increase in KJL resulted in an increase of approximately 30% in adduction impulse in a cutting maneuver, an increase of approximately 20% in knee adduction moment, and a 20% to 45% increase in external rotation loads during a jumping and stopping task (P < .05).


Changes in KJL during the menstrual cycle do change knee joint loading during movements.

Clinical Relevance

Our findings will be beneficial for researchers in the development of more effective ACL injury prevention programs.

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