Asian Science Citation Index is committed to provide an authoritative, trusted and significant information by the coverage of the most important and influential journals to meet the needs of the global scientific community.  
ASCI Database
308-Lasani Town,
Sargodha Road,
Faisalabad, Pakistan
Fax: +92-41-8815544
Contact Via Web
Suggest a Journal
Articles by S. K Dhar
Total Records ( 3 ) for S. K Dhar
  Y. T Shen , F. I Malik , X Zhao , C Depre , S. K Dhar , P Abarzua , D. J Morgans and S. F. Vatner

Therapy for chronic systolic heart failure (sHF) has improved over the past 2 decades, but the armamentarium of drugs is limited and consequently sHF remains a leading cause of death and disability. In this investigation, we examined the effects of a novel cardiac myosin activator, omecamtiv mecarbil (formerly CK-1827452) in 2 different models of heart failure.

Methods and Results—

Two different models of sHF were used: (1) pacing-induced sHF after myocardial infarction (MI-sHF) and (2) pacing-induced sHF after 1 year of chronic pressure overload left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH-sHF). Omecamtiv mecarbil increased systolic function in sHF dogs, chronically instrumented to measure LV pressure, wall thickness, and cardiac output. Omecamtiv mecarbil, infused for 24 hours, induced a sustained increase without desensitization (P<0.05) in wall thickening (25±6.2%), stroke volume (44±6.5%) and cardiac output (22±2.8%), and decreased heart rate (15±3.0%). The major differences between the effect of omecamtiv mecarbil on cardiac function and the effect induced by a catecholamine, for example, dobutamine, is that omecamtiv mecarbil did not increase LV dP/dt but rather increased LV systolic ejection time by 26±2.9% in sHF. Another key difference is that myocardial O2 consumption (MVO2), which increases with catecholamines, was not significantly affected by omecamtiv mecarbil.


These results demonstrate that chronic infusion of the cardiac myosin activator, omecamtiv mecarbil, improves LV function in sHF without the limitations of progressive desensitization and increased MVO2. This unique profile may provide a new therapeutic approach for patients with sHF.

  C Wu , L Yan , C Depre , S. K Dhar , Y. T Shen , J Sadoshima , S. F Vatner and D. E. Vatner

Cytochrome c oxidase (COX) is composed of 13 subunits, of which COX I, II, and III are encoded by a mitochondrial gene. COX I and II function as the main catalytic components, but the function of COX III is unclear. Because myocardial ischemia affects mitochondrial oxidative metabolism, we hypothesized that COX activity and expression would be affected during postischemic cardiomyopathy. This hypothesis was tested in a monkey model following myocardial infarction (MI) and subsequent pacing-induced heart failure (HF). In this model, COX I protein expression was decreased threefold after MI and fourfold after HF (P < 0.05 vs. sham), whereas COX II expression remained unchanged. COX III protein expression increased 5-fold after MI and further increased 10-fold after HF compared with sham (P < 0.05 vs. sham). The physiological impact of COX III regulation was examined in vitro. Overexpression of COX III in mitochondria of HL-1 cells resulted in an 80% decrease in COX I, 60% decrease in global COX activity, 60% decrease in cell viability, and threefold increase in apoptosis (P < 0.05). Oxidative stress induced by H2O2 significantly (P < 0.05) increased COX III expression. H2O2 decreased cell viability by 47 ± 3% upon overexpression of COX III, but only by 12 ± 5% in control conditions (P < 0.05). We conclude that ischemic stress in vivo and oxidative stress in vitro lead to upregulation of COX III, followed by downregulation of COX I expression, impaired COX oxidative activity, and increased apoptosis. Therefore, upregulation of COX III may contribute to the increased susceptibility to apoptosis following MI and subsequent HF.

  S. K Dhar and D. K. St. Clair

Activation of p53 is an important mechanism in apoptosis. However, whether the presence of p53 in mitochondria plays an important role in p53-mediated apoptosis is unclear. Here, we demonstrate that overexpression of NPM (nucleophosmin) significantly suppresses 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA)-mediated apoptosis, in part, by blocking the mitochondrial localization of p53. Within 1 h following TPA treatment of skin epithelial (JB6) cells, p53 accumulated in mitochondria. Expression of NPM enhances p53 levels in the nucleus but reduces p53 levels in mitochondria, as detected by immunocytochemistry and Western blot analysis. The suppressive effect of NPM on p53 mitochondrial localization is also observed in TPA-treated primary epithelial cells and in JB6 cells treated with doxorubicin. NPM enhances the expression of p53 target gene p21 and bax. However, the increase in Bax level in the absence of p53 in mitochondria did not lead to an increase in TPA-induced apoptosis, suggesting that the presence of p53 in mitochondria is important. Suppression of NPM by NPM small interfering RNA leads to an increase of p53 levels in mitochondria and apoptosis. Furthermore, suppression of NPM in tumor cells with a high constitutive level of NPM results in p53 translocation to mitochondria and enhances TPA-mediated apoptosis. The results demonstrate the effect of NPM on p53 localization in mitochondria and apoptosis. Together, the data indicate that the presence of p53 in mitochondria plays an important role in stress-induced apoptosis and suggest that NPM may protect cells from apoptosis by reducing the mitochondrial level of p53.

Copyright   |   Desclaimer   |    Privacy Policy   |   Browsers   |   Accessibility