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Articles by S. J Hwang
Total Records ( 5 ) for S. J Hwang
  J. Y Kim , H. J Cho , J. J Sir , B. K Kim , J Hur , S. W Youn , H. M Yang , S. I Jun , K. W Park , S. J Hwang , Y. W Kwon , H. Y Lee , H. J Kang , B. H Oh , Y. B Park and H. S. Kim

Inflammation, and the subsequent proliferative activity of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), is one of the major pathophysiological mechanisms associated with neointimal hyperplasia following vascular injury. Although sulfasalazine (SSZ) has been used as an anti-inflammatory and immune-modulatory agent in various inflammatory diseases, its primary targets and therapeutic effects on vascular disease have not yet been determined. We investigated whether SSZ could suppress VSMC growth and prevent neointimal hyperplasia.

Methods and results

SSZ was found to have pro-apoptotic and anti-proliferative activity in cultured VSMCs. Unexpectedly, these effects were not mediated by nuclear factor kappa B (NF-B) inhibition, which has been suggested to be the anti-inflammatory mechanism associated with the effects of SSZ. Instead, cell-cycle arrest of the VSMCs was observed, which was mediated by induction of haem oxygenase-1 (HO-1) followed by an increased expression of p21waf1/Cip1. The underlying mechanism for SSZ-induced HO-1 expression was by reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent nuclear translocation and activation of nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). In a rat carotid artery balloon injury model, administration of SSZ significantly suppressed neointimal growth. In a series of reverse experiments, inhibition of HO-1 by shRNA, ROS by N-acetylcysteine (NAC) or Nrf2 by dominant-negative Nrf2 abrogated the beneficial effects of SSZ.


Our data demonstrate that SSZ inhibits VSMC proliferation in vitro and in vivo through a novel signalling pathway and may be a promising therapeutic option for the treatment of proliferative vascular disease.

  S. R Preis , M. J Pencina , S. J Hwang , R. B D'Agostino , P. J Savage , D Levy and C. S. Fox

Background— Individuals with diabetes mellitus are at 2- to 3-fold increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) relative to those without diabetes. Our objective was to examine CVD risk factor level changes among individuals with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus from 1970 to 2005 in the Framingham Heart Study.

Methods and Results— We included 4195 participants (3990 with no diabetes and 205 with diabetes) 50 years of age and 3495 participants (3178 with no diabetes and 317 with diabetes) 60 years of age. Contemporaneous CVD risk factor levels were measured; linear regression models were used to assess the interaction between diabetes status and calendar year on CVD risk factor levels. Among 50-year-olds without diabetes mellitus, there was an increase in body mass index of 0.39 kg/m2 per 10 years, whereas for those with diabetes, there was an increase of 2.52 kg/m2 (P value for the diabetes-by–calendar year interaction [P for interaction] <0.001). For low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, the mean decrease was –7.43 mg/dL per decade (nondiabetes) and –15.5 mg/dL for diabetes (P for interaction=0.002). For systolic blood pressure, the mean decrease was –3.35 mm Hg per decade (nondiabetes) and –3.50 mm Hg for diabetes (P for interaction=0.97). The direction of the trends for those with diabetes relative to those without diabetes was similar for 60-year-olds.

Conclusions— Compared with individuals without diabetes mellitus, individuals with diabetes experienced a greater increase in body mass index, a greater decrease in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and a similar magnitude of decline in systolic blood pressure. Individuals with diabetes mellitus have not experienced the necessary declines in CVD risk factors to overcome their increased risk of CVD. Further efforts are needed to aggressively control CVD risk factors among individuals with diabetes mellitus.

  Y. H Jeong , J. Y Hwang , I. S Kim , Y Park , S. J Hwang , S. W Lee , C. H Kwak and S. W. Park

Background— Optimal platelet inhibition is an important therapeutic adjunct in patients acute myocardial infarction (AMI) undergoing coronary stenting. Whether adjunctive cilostazol to dual antiplatelet therapy (triple antiplatelet therapy) can inhibit enhanced platelet reactivity in patients with AMI yet has not been determined. The aim of this study was to assess the degree of platelet inhibition by triple antiplatelet therapy in patients with AMI.

Methods and Results— Immediately after emergency room arrival, patients with AMI received clopidogrel (600-mg loading dose, followed by 75 mg daily) and aspirin (300-mg loading dose and 200 mg daily throughout the study period). After patients underwent coronary stenting (n=90), they were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups before discharge: standard group, clopidogrel of 75 mg daily (n=30); high maintenance dose (MD) group, clopidogrel of 150 mg daily (n=30); and triple group, adjunctive cilostazol of 100 mg twice daily to clopidogrel of 75 mg daily (n=30). Platelet reactivity was assessed at predischarge and 30-day follow-up by conventional aggregometry and the VerifyNow P2Y12 assay. Predischarge platelet reactivities were similar in the 3 groups. At 30-day follow-up, inhibition of maximal aggregation with 20 µM ADP stimuli was 6.0% in the standard group, 19.1% in the high-MD group, and 42.4% in the triple group (P<0.001), whereas inhibition of late aggregation with 20µM ADP stimuli was 10.8%, 38.1%, and 66.4%, respectively (P<0.001). Similar results were demonstrated when 5 µM ADP was used. Furthermore, percent changes of P2Y12 reaction unit were significantly different among regimens (10.6% in the standard group, 30.7% in the high-MD group, and 43.0% in the triple group; P<0.001). With respect to high-postclopidogrel platelet reactivity (prespecified as 20 µM ADP-induced maximal aggregation >50% of light transmission), fewer patients in the triple group (13.3%) met the criteria as compared with those in the standard (76.7%) and high-MD groups (56.7%) at 30-day follow-up (P<0.001). In the triple group, there were more potent and consistent platelet inhibitions by all parameters as compared with the high-MD group except for percent changes of P2Y12 reaction unit (P=0.071).

Conclusions— Among patients with AMI undergoing coronary stenting, triple antiplatelet therapy results in a greater antiplatelet effect at 30 days as compared with a high-MD clopidogrel or standard dual antiplatelet therapy.

  S. J Hwang , Y. H Jeong , I. S Kim , K. S Park , M. K Kang , J. S Koh , J. R Park , Y Park , E. H Koh , C. H Kwak , J. Y Hwang and S. Kim

Among patients treated with clopidogrel, carriers of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C19 loss-of-function allele have shown increased platelet reactivity and higher rates of ischemic events. Although adjunctive cilostazol to dual antiplatelet therapy (or "triple antiplatelet therapy") intensifies platelet inhibition, it remains unknown whether triple antiplatelet therapy after percutaneous coronary intervention can achieve adequate platelet inhibition in patients with the CYP2C19 mutant allele.

Methods and Results—

CYP2C19 genotyping for *1, *2, and *3 was performed in 134 high-risk patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention. After measurement of preprocedural platelet reactivity, patients were randomly assigned to receive either adjunctive cilostazol 100 mg twice daily (triple group; n=69) or high maintenance-dose (MD) clopidogrel of 150 mg daily (high-MD group; n=65). Using light transmittance aggregometry and the VerifyNow P2Y12 assay, platelet reactivity was assessed before the index procedure and at 30-day follow-up. The primary end point was absolute change in maximal platelet aggregation (Aggmax) according to CYP2C19 genotyping. High posttreatment platelet reactivity was defined as 5 µmol/L ADP–induced maximal platelet aggregation >50%. In noncarriers of the CYP2C19*2/*3 mutant allele, Aggmax values after 5 and 20 µmol/L ADP stimuli did not differ significantly between the triple (n=22) versus the high-MD group (n=22) (23.6±21.6% versus 16.6±15.4%, P=0.224 and 26.4±22.2% versus 18.6±14.9%, P=0.174, respectively). Absolute changes in late platelet aggregation and P2Y12 reaction unit were not different between the groups. The rate of high posttreatment platelet reactivity at 30-day follow-up also was comparable between the triple versus the high-MD group (4.5% versus 13.6%, P=0.607). In carriers of at least 1 CYP2C19*2/*3 mutant allele, the triple group (n=47) showed greater values of Aggmax after addition of 5 µmol/L (25.8±16.8% versus 11.1±19.8%, P<0.001) and 20 µmol/L ADP (26.3±16.0% versus 11.5±16.3%, P<0.001) compared with the high-MD group (n=43). Likewise, absolute changes in late platelet aggregation and P2Y12 reaction unit were consistently greater in the triple versus the high-MD group. Fewer patients in the triple group met the criteria of high posttreatment platelet reactivity at 30-day follow-up compared with the high-MD group (6.4% versus 37.2%, P<0.001).


Among high-risk patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention, adjunctive cilostazol can achieve consistently intensified platelet inhibition and reduce the risk of high posttreatment platelet reactivity irrespective of CYP2C19 genotyping.

Clinical Trial Registration—

URL: Unique identifier: NCT01012193.

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