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Articles by S. J Chanock
Total Records ( 8 ) for S. J Chanock
  A. A Arslan , K. J Helzlsouer , C Kooperberg , X. O Shu , E Steplowski , H. B Bueno de Mesquita , C. S Fuchs , M. D Gross , E. J Jacobs , A. Z LaCroix , G. M Petersen , R. Z Stolzenberg Solomon , W Zheng , D Albanes , L Amundadottir , W. R Bamlet , A Barricarte , S. A Bingham , H Boeing , M. C Boutron Ruault , J. E Buring , S. J Chanock , S Clipp , J. M Gaziano , E. L Giovannucci , S. E Hankinson , P Hartge , R. N Hoover , D. J Hunter , A Hutchinson , K. B Jacobs , P Kraft , S. M Lynch , J Manjer , J. E Manson , A McTiernan , R. R McWilliams , J. B Mendelsohn , D. S Michaud , D Palli , T. E Rohan , N Slimani , G Thomas , A Tjonneland , G. S Tobias , D Trichopoulos , J Virtamo , B. M Wolpin , K Yu , A Zeleniuch Jacquotte and A. V. Patel

Background  Obesity has been proposed as a risk factor for pancreatic cancer.

Methods  Pooled data were analyzed from the National Cancer Institute Pancreatic Cancer Cohort Consortium (PanScan) to study the association between prediagnostic anthropometric measures and risk of pancreatic cancer. PanScan applied a nested case-control study design and included 2170 cases and 2209 control subjects. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using unconditional logistic regression for cohort-specific quartiles of body mass index (BMI [calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared]), weight, height, waist circumference, and waist to hip ratio as well as conventional BMI categories (underweight, <18.5; normal weight, 18.5-24.9; overweight, 25.0-29.9; obese, 30.0-34.9; and severely obese, ≥35.0). Models were adjusted for potential confounders.

Results  In all of the participants, a positive association between increasing BMI and risk of pancreatic cancer was observed (adjusted OR for the highest vs lowest BMI quartile, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.12-1.58; Ptrend < .001). In men, the adjusted OR for pancreatic cancer for the highest vs lowest quartile of BMI was 1.33 (95% CI, 1.04-1.69; Ptrend < .03), and in women it was 1.34 (95% CI, 1.05-1.70; Ptrend = .01). Increased waist to hip ratio was associated with increased risk of pancreatic cancer in women (adjusted OR for the highest vs lowest quartile, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.31-2.69; Ptrend = .003) but less so in men.

Conclusions  These findings provide strong support for a positive association between BMI and pancreatic cancer risk. In addition, centralized fat distribution may increase pancreatic cancer risk, especially in women.

  J. Y Lee , A. K Park , K. M Lee , S. K Park , S Han , W Han , D. Y Noh , K. Y Yoo , H Kim , S. J Chanock , N Rothman and D. Kang

Objectives: This study was conducted to investigate the role of common variation in innate immunity-related genes as susceptibility factors to breast cancer risk in Korean women. Methods: Total 1536 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 203 genes were analyzed by Illumina GoldenGate assay in 209 cases and the same numbers of controls. Both SNP and gene-based tests were used to evaluate the association with breast cancer risk. The robustness of results was further evaluated with permutation method, false discovery rate and haplotype analyses. Results: Both SNP and gene-based analyses showed promising associations with breast cancer risk for 17 genes: OR10J3, FCER1A, NCF4, CNTNAP1, CTNNB1, KLKB1, ITGB2, ALOX12B, KLK2, IRAK3, KLK4, STAT6, NCF2, CCL1, C1QR1, MBP and NOS1. The most significant association with breast cancer risk was observed for the OR10J3 SNP (rs2494251, P-value = 1.2 x 10–4) and FCER1A SNP (rs7548864, P-value = 7.7 x 10–4). Gene-based permutation and false discovery rate P-values for OR10J3 SNP (rs2494251) with breast cancer risk were also significant (P = 4 x 10–5 and 0.008, respectively). Haplotype analyses supported these findings that OR10J3 and FCER1A were most significantly associated with risk for breast cancer (P = 2 x 10–4 and 0.004, respectively). Conclusion: This study suggests that common genetic variants in the OR10J3 and FCER1A be strongly associated with breast cancer risk among Korean women.

  L Dossus , R Kaaks , F Canzian , D Albanes , S. I Berndt , H Boeing , J Buring , S. J Chanock , F Clavel Chapelon , H. S Feigelson , J. M Gaziano , E Giovannucci , C Gonzalez , C. A Haiman , G Hallmans , S. E Hankinson , R. B Hayes , B. E Henderson , R. N Hoover , D. J Hunter , K. T Khaw , L. N Kolonel , P Kraft , J Ma , L Le Marchand , E Lund , P. H.M Peeters , M Stampfer , D. O Stram , G Thomas , M. J Thun , A Tjonneland , D Trichopoulos , R Tumino , E Riboli , J Virtamo , S. J Weinstein , M Yeager , R. G Ziegler and D. G. Cox

Genes involved in the inflammation pathway have been associated with cancer risk. Genetic variants in the interleukin-6 (IL6) and prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase-2 (PTGS2, encoding for the COX-2 enzyme) genes, in particular, have been related to several cancer types, including breast and prostate cancers. We conducted a study within the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium to examine the association between IL6 and PTGS2 polymorphisms and breast and prostate cancer risk. Twenty-seven polymorphisms, selected by pairwise tagging, were genotyped on 6292 breast cancer cases and 8135 matched controls and 8008 prostate cancer cases and 8604 matched controls. The large sample sizes and comprehensive single nucleotide polymorphism tagging in this study gave us excellent power to detect modest effects for common variants. After adjustment for multiple testing, none of the associations examined remained statistically significant at P = 0.01. In analyses not adjusted for multiple testing, one IL6 polymorphism (rs6949149) was marginally associated with breast cancer risk (TT versus GG, odds ratios (OR): 1.32; 99% confidence intervals (CI): 1.00–1.74, Ptrend = 0.003) and two were marginally associated with prostate cancer risk (rs6969502-AA versus rs6969502-GG, OR: 0.87, 99% CI: 0.75–1.02; Ptrend = 0.002 and rs7805828-AA versus rs7805828-GG, OR: 1.11, 99% CI: 0.99–1.26; Ptrend = 0.007). An increase in breast cancer risk was observed for the PTGS2 polymorphism rs7550380 (TT versus GG, OR: 1.38, 99% CI: 1.04–1.83). No association was observed between PTGS2 polymorphisms and prostate cancer risk. In conclusion, common genetic variation in these two genes might play at best a limited role in breast and prostate cancers.

  G Andreotti , P Boffetta , P. S Rosenberg , S. I Berndt , S Karami , I Menashe , M Yeager , S. J Chanock , D Zaridze , V Matteev , V Janout , H Kollarova , V Bencko , M Navratilova , N Szeszenia Dabrowska , D Mates , N Rothman , P Brennan , W. H Chow and L. E. Moore

Hypertension is a known risk factor for renal cell carcinoma (RCC), although the underlying biological mechanisms of its action are unknown. To clarify the role of hypertension in RCC, we examined the risk of RCC in relation to 142 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in eight genes having a role in blood pressure control. We analyzed 777 incident and histologically confirmed RCC cases and 1035 controls who completed an in-person interview as part of a multi-center, hospital-based case–control study in Central Europe. Genotyping was conducted with an Illumina® GoldenGate® Oligo Pool All assay using germ line DNA. Of the eight genes examined, AGT (angiotensinogen) was most strongly associated with RCC (minimum P-value permutation test = 0.02). Of the 17 AGT tagging SNPs considered, associations were strongest for rs1326889 [odds ratio (OR) = 1.35, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.15–1.58] and rs2493137 (OR = 1.31, 95% CI = 1.12–1.54), which are located in the promoter. Stratified analysis revealed that the effects of the AGT SNPs were statistically significant in participants with hypertension or high body mass index (BMI) (≥25 kg/m2), but not in subjects without hypertension and with a normal BMI (<25 kg/m2). Also, haplotypes with risk-conferring alleles of markers located in the promoter and intron 1 regions of AGT were significantly associated with RCC compared with the common haplotype in subjects with hypertension or high BMI (global P = 0.003). Our findings suggest that common genetic variants of AGT, particularly those in the promoter, increase RCC risk among subjects who are hypertensive or overweight.

  T. K Lam , M Rotunno , J. H Lubin , S Wacholder , D Consonni , A. C Pesatori , P. A Bertazzi , S. J Chanock , L Burdette , A. M Goldstein , M. A Tucker , N. E Caporaso , A. F Subar and M. T. Landi

Epidemiological and mechanistic evidence on the association of quercetin-rich food intake with lung cancer risk and carcinogenesis are inconclusive. We investigated the role of dietary quercetin and the interaction between quercetin and P450 and glutathione S-transferase (GST) polymorphisms on lung cancer risk in 1822 incident lung cancer cases and 1991 frequency-matched controls from the Environment And Genetics in Lung cancer Etiology study. In non-tumor lung tissue from 38 adenocarcinoma patients, we assessed the correlation between quercetin intake and messenger RNA expression of the same P450 and GST metabolic genes. Multivariate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for sex-specific quintiles of intake were calculated using unconditional logistic regression adjusting for putative risk factors. Frequent intake of quercetin-rich foods was inversely associated with lung cancer risk (OR = 0.49; 95% CI: 0.37–0.67; P-trend < 0.001) and did not differ by P450 or GST genotypes, gender or histological subtypes. The association was stronger in subjects who smoked >20 cigarettes per day (OR = 0.35; 95% CI: 0.19–0.66; P-trend = 0.003). Based on a two-sample t-test, we compared gene expression and high versus low consumption of quercetin-rich foods and observed an overall upregulation of GSTM1, GSTM2, GSTT2, and GSTP1 as well as a downregulation of specific P450 genes (P-values < 0.05, adjusted for age and smoking status). In conclusion, we observed an inverse association of quercetin-rich food with lung cancer risk and identified a possible mechanism of quercetin-related changes in the expression of genes involved in the metabolism of tobacco carcinogens in humans. Our findings suggest an interplay between quercetin intake, tobacco smoking, and lung cancer risk. Further research on this relationship is warranted.

  H. P Yang , J Gonzalez Bosquet , Q Li , E. A Platz , L. A Brinton , M. E Sherman , J. V Lacey , M. M Gaudet , L. A Burdette , J. D Figueroa , J. G Ciampa , J Lissowska , B Peplonska , S. J Chanock and M. Garcia Closas

Background. Estrogen plays a major role in endometrial carcinogenesis, suggesting that common variants of genes in the sex hormone metabolic pathway may be related to endometrial cancer risk. In support of this view, variants in CYP19A1 [cytochrome P450 (CYP), family 19, subfamily A, polypeptide 1] have been associated with both circulating estrogen levels and endometrial cancer risk. Associations with variants in other genes have been suggested, but findings have been inconsistent. Methods. We examined 36 sex hormone-related genes using a tagging approach in a population-based case–control study of 417 endometrial cancer cases and 407 controls conducted in Poland. We evaluated common variation in these genes in relation to endometrial cancer risk using sequential haplotype scan, variable-sized sliding window and adaptive rank-truncated product (ARTP) methods. Results. In our case–control study, the strongest association with endometrial cancer risk was for AR (androgen receptor; ARTP P = 0.006). Multilocus analyses also identified boundaries for a region of interest in AR and in CYP19A1 around a previously identified susceptibility loci. We did not find evidence for consistent associations between previously reported candidate single-nucleotide polymorphisms in this pathway and endometrial cancer risk. Discussion. In summary, we identified regions in AR and CYP19A1 that are of interest for further evaluation in relation to endometrial cancer risk in future haplotype and subsequent fine mapping studies in larger study populations.

  S. K Park , G Andreotti , A Rashid , J Chen , P. S Rosenberg , K Yu , J Olsen , Y. T Gao , J Deng , L. C Sakoda , M Zhang , M. C Shen , B. S Wang , T. Q Han , B. H Zhang , M Yeager , S. J Chanock and A. W. Hsing

Biliary tract cancer encompasses tumors of the gallbladder, bile duct and ampulla of Vater. Gallbladder cancer is more common in women, whereas bile duct cancer is more common in men, suggesting that sex hormones may play a role in the etiology of these cancers. The intracellular action of estrogens is regulated by the estrogen receptor (ESR); thus, we examined the role of common genetic variants in ESR genes on the risk of biliary tract cancers and stones in a population-based case–control study in Shanghai, China (411 cancer cases, 895 stone cases and 786 controls). We genotyped six single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), four in ESR1 (rs2234693, rs3841686, rs2228480 and rs1801132) and two in ESR2 (rs1256049 and rs4986938). In all participants, the ESR1 rs1801132 (P325P) G allele was associated with excess risks of bile duct [odds ratio (OR) = 1.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1–2.8] and ampulla of Vater cancers (OR = 2.1, 95% CI 0.9–4.9) compared with the CC genotype. The association with bile duct cancer was apparent among men (OR = 2.8, 95% CI 1.4–5.7) but not among women (P-heterogeneity = 0.01). Also, the ESR2 rs4986938 (38 bp 3' of STP) GG genotype was associated with a higher risk of bile duct cancer (OR = 3.3, 95% CI 1.3–8.7) compared with the AA genotype, although this estimate was based on a small number of subjects. None of the other SNPs examined was associated with biliary tract cancers or stones. False discovery rate-adjusted P-values were not significant (P > 0.1). No association was found for ESR1 haplotype based on four SNPs. These preliminary results suggest that variants in ESR genes could play a role in the etiology of biliary tract cancers, especially bile duct cancer in men.

  S. A Glynn , B. J Boersma , T. M Howe , H Edvardsen , S. B Geisler , J. E Goodman , L. A Ridnour , P. E Lonning , A. L Borresen Dale , B Naume , V. N Kristensen , S. J Chanock , D. A Wink and S. Ambs

Purpose: Manganese superoxide dismutase protects against oxidative damage and modulates the efficacy of chemotherapeutic drugs. A functional single-nucleotide polymorphism in codon 16 of SOD2 (rs4880), which encodes manganese superoxide dismutase, results in a substitution of valine by alanine (Val16Ala). We hypothesized that this single-nucleotide polymorphism affects breast cancer survival of patients receiving chemotherapy.

Experimental Design: Two patient populations from the United States (n = 248) and Norway (n = 340) were genotyped for Val16Ala. Kaplan-Meier survival and Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were used to examine the relationship between Val16Ala and disease-specific survival.

Results: Val16Ala was significantly associated with breast cancer outcome in both patient populations. Carriers of the Ala allele had inferior survival rates in the multivariate analysis [hazard ratio (HR), 2.44 and 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.11-5.37 in U.S. cohort; HR, 1.91 and 95% CI, 1.06-3.45 in Norway cohort for Ala/Ala versus Val/Val]. In an analysis of the combined cohorts, this association was significant for patients receiving adjuvant therapy (HR, 2.47; 95% CI, 1.46-4.19), but not for patients without it (HR, 1.47; 95% CI, 0.57-3.74). After further stratification by type of chemotherapy, the effect of the Ala allele was mostly restricted to cyclophosphamide-containing chemotherapy regimens (HR, 22.0; 95% CI, 5.22-92.9; Ala/Ala versus Val/Val).

Conclusion: The Val16Ala polymorphism affects survival of patients receiving cyclophosphamide-containing chemotherapy. The findings provide the first evidence pointing toward a mechanism for cyclophosphamide resistance in breast cancer patients.

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