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Articles by S. I Saitoh
Total Records ( 2 ) for S. I Saitoh
  R Saito , A Yamaguchi , S. I Saitoh , K Kuma and I. Imai
 

The subarctic Pacific is known to have east–west gradients in the oceanic environment and phytoplankton community. The western subarctic Pacific is characterized by low temperature and high chlorophyll a (Chl a) while the eastern region by high temperature and low Chl a. Although there is little information on the differences in the zooplankton community between the eastern and western subarctic Pacific, the gradients in the oceanographic environment and phytoplankton community may markedly affect the zooplankton community in this region. The aim of this study is to clarify east–west differences in the subarctic Pacific zooplankton community. Zooplankton were sampled at stations along the 165°E line (western subarctic Pacific from 41°30'N to 49°30'N) and 165°W line (eastern subarctic Pacific from 39°N to 53°30'N) using 335 and 100 µm mesh size Twin NORPAC net during the summers of 2003–2006. East–west differences in the zooplankton community were characterized as: (i) greater total zooplankton abundance in the west and (ii) larger body size of calanoid copepods of the same copepodid stage in the west. Differences in east–west zooplankton abundances are attributed to differences in the magnitude of primary production (high in the west) and the size of primary producers (large in the west). Larger body sizes of calanoid copepods in the west are attributed to the lower temperature. Thus, differences in zooplankton abundance and body size are concluded to be due to east–west gradients in the oceanographic environment and phytoplankton community.

  R Fukui , S. i Saitoh , F Matsumoto , H Kozuka Hata , M Oyama , K Tabeta , B Beutler and K. Miyake
 

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 3, 7, and 9 recognize microbial nucleic acids in endolysosomes and initiate innate and adaptive immune responses. TLR7/9 in dendritic cells (DCs) also respond to self-derived RNA/DNA, respectively, and drive autoantibody production. Remarkably, TLR7 and 9 appear to have mutually opposing, pathogenic or protective, impacts on lupus nephritis in MRL/lpr mice. Little is known, however, about the contrasting relationship between TLR7 and 9. We show that TLR7 and 9 are inversely linked by Unc93B1, a multiple membrane-spanning endoplasmic reticulum (ER) protein. Complementation cloning with a TLR7-unresponsive but TLR9-responsive cell line revealed that amino acid D34 in Unc93B1 repressed TLR7-mediated responses. D34A mutation rendered Unc93B1-deficient DCs hyperresponsive to TLR7 ligand but hyporesponsive to TLR9 ligand, with TLR3 responses unaltered. Unc93B1 associates with and delivers TLR7/9 from the ER to endolysosomes for ligand recognition. The D34A mutation up-regulates Unc93B1 association with endogenous TLR7 in DCs, whereas Unc93B1 association with TLR9 was down-regulated by the D34A mutation. Consistently, the D34A mutation up-regulated ligand-induced trafficking of TLR7 but down-regulated that of TLR9. Collectively, TLR response to nucleic acids in DCs is biased toward DNA-sensing by Unc93B1.

 
 
 
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