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Articles by S. H Smith
Total Records ( 2 ) for S. H Smith
  J. A Kirk , G. A MacGowan , C Evans , S. H Smith , C. M Warren , R Mamidi , M Chandra , A. F.R Stewart , R. J Solaro and S. G. Shroff

Rationale: Protein kinase (PK)C-induced phosphorylation of cardiac troponin (cTn)I has been shown to regulate cardiac contraction.

Objective: Characterize functional effects of increased PKC-induced cTnI phosphorylation and identify underlying mechanisms using a transgenic mouse model (cTnIPKC-P) expressing mutant cTnI (S43E, S45E, T144E).

Methods and Results: Two-dimensional gel analysis showed 7.2±0.5% replacement of endogenous cTnI with the mutant form. Experiments included: mechanical measurements (perfused isolated hearts, isolated papillary muscles, and skinned fiber preparations), biochemical and molecular biological measurements, and a mathematical model–based analysis for integrative interpretation. Compared to wild-type mice, cTnIPKC-P mice exhibited negative inotropy in isolated hearts (14% decrease in peak developed pressure), papillary muscles (53% decrease in maximum developed force), and skinned fibers (14% decrease in maximally activated force, Fmax). Additionally, cTnIPKC-P mice exhibited slowed relaxation in both isolated hearts and intact papillary muscles. The cTnIPKC-P mice showed no differences in calcium sensitivity, cooperativity, steady-state force-MgATPase relationship, calcium transient (amplitude and relaxation), or baseline phosphorylation of other myofilamental proteins. The model-based analysis revealed that experimental observations in cTnIPKC-P mice could be reproduced by 2 simultaneous perturbations: a decrease in the rate of cross-bridge formation and an increase in calcium-independent persistence of the myofilament active state.

Conclusions: A modest increase in PKC-induced cTnI phosphorylation (7%) can significantly alter cardiac muscle contraction: negative inotropy via decreased cross-bridge formation and negative lusitropy via persistence of myofilament active state. Based on our data and data from the literature we speculate that effects of PKC-mediated cTnI phosphorylation are site-specific (S43/S45 versus T144).

  S. H Smith , K. M Haas , J. C Poe , K Yanaba , C. D Ward , T. S Migone and T. F. Tedder

Peripheral B-cell numbers are tightly regulated by homeostatic mechanisms that influence the transitional and mature B-cell compartments and dictate the size and clonotypic diversity of the B-cell repertoire. B-lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS, a trademark of Human Genome Sciences, Inc.) plays a key role in regulating peripheral B-cell homeostasis. CD22 also promotes peripheral B-cell survival through ligand-dependent mechanisms. The B-cell subsets affected by the absence of BLyS and CD22 signals overlap, suggesting that BLyS- and CD22-mediated survival are intertwined. To examine this, the effects of BLyS insufficiency following neutralizing BLyS mAb treatment in mice also treated with CD22 ligand-blocking mAb were examined. Combined targeting of the BLyS and CD22 survival pathways led to significantly greater clearance of recirculating bone marrow, blood, marginal zone and follicular B cells than either treatment alone. Likewise, BLyS blockade further reduced bone marrow, blood and spleen B-cell numbers in CD22–/– mice. Notably, BLyS receptor expression and downstream signaling were normal in CD22–/– B cells, suggesting that CD22 does not directly alter BLyS responsiveness. CD22 survival signals were likewise intact in the absence of BLyS, as CD22 mAb treatment depleted blood B cells from mice with impaired BLyS receptor 3 (BR3) signaling. Finally, enforced BclxL expression, which rescues BR3 impairment, did not affect B-cell depletion following CD22 mAb treatment. Thus, the current studies support a model whereby CD22 and BLyS promote the survival of overlapping B-cell subsets but contribute to their maintenance through independent and complementary signaling pathways.

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