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Articles by S. H Kim
Total Records ( 11 ) for S. H Kim
  S. H Kim , J Lee , M. J Kim , Y. H Jeon , Y Park , D Choi , W. J Lee and H. K. Lim

OBJECTIVE. We compared the diagnostic performance of gadoxetic acid–enhanced MRI with that of triple-phase 16-, 40-, and 64-MDCT in the preoperative detection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).

SUBJECTS AND METHODS. Sixty-two consecutively registered patients (54 men, eight women; age range, 31–67 years) with 83 HCCs underwent triple-phase (arterial, portal venous, equilibrium) CT at 16-, 40-, or 64-MDCT and gadoxetic acid–enhanced 3-T MRI. The diagnosis of HCC was established after surgical resection. Three observers independently and randomly reviewed the MR and CT images on a tumor-by-tumor basis. The diagnostic accuracy of these techniques in the detection of HCC was assessed with alternative free response receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Sensitivity, positive and negative predictive values, and sensitivity according to tumor size were evaluated.

RESULTS. For each observer, the areas under the ROC curve were 0.971, 0.959, and 0.967 for MRI and 0.947, 0.950, and 0.943 for CT. The differences were not statistically significant between the two techniques for each observer (p > 0.05). The differences in sensitivity and positive and negative predictive values between the two techniques for each observer were not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Among 10 HCCs 1 cm in diameter or smaller, each of the observers detected seven tumors with MRI. With CT, one observer detected five, one observer detected four, and one observer detected three HCCs with no statistically significant difference (p > 0.05).

CONCLUSION. Gadoxetic acid–enhanced MRI and triple-phase MDCT have similar diagnostic performance in the preoperative detection of HCC, but MRI may be better than MDCT in the detection of HCC 1 cm in diameter or smaller.

  S. A Lee , Y. M Kim , T. K Kwak , H. J Kim , S Kim , W Ko , S. H Kim , K. H Park , M Cho and J. W. Lee

Four-transmembrane L6 family member 5 (TM4SF5) and its homolog L6, a tumor antigen, form a four-transmembrane L6 family. TM4SF5 expression causes uncontrolled cell proliferation and angiogenesis. Although other genuine transmembrane 4 superfamily (TM4SF) members co-operate with integrins for cell migration, roles of TM4SF5 in the cellular spreading and migration are unknown. Using hepatocarcinoma cell clones that ectopically express TM4SF5, we found that cross talks via an extracellular interaction between TM4SF5 and integrin 2 in collagen type I environment inhibited integrin 2 functions such as spreading on and migration toward collagen I, which were recovered by suppression of TM4SF5 or structural disturbance of its second extracellular loop using a peptide or mutagenesis. Altogether, the observations suggest that TM4SF5 in hepatocytes negatively regulates integrin 2 function via an interaction between the extracellular loop 2 of TM4SF5 and integrin 2 during cell spreading on and migration through collagen I environment.

  J. M Oh , S. H Kim , E. A Cho , Y. S Song , W. H Kim and Y. S. Juhnn

To investigate the mechanism by which the human papillomavirus (HPV) E5 protein contributes to the carcinogenesis of uterine cervical cancer, we studied the effect of HPV E5 on apoptosis of cervical cancer cells and its underlying mechanism. Expression of HPV16 E5 protein inhibited hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis in C-33A cervical cancer cells. E5 decreased the expression of Bax protein, and exogenous expression of Bax abolished the anti-apoptotic effect of E5. Knockdown of E5 by small interfering RNA sensitized CaSki cervical cancer cells to hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis with concurrent increase in Bax expression. Transient expression of E5 significantly increased the degradation rate of Bax protein by inducing the ubiquitination. The E5-induced decrease in Bax expression was inhibited by a cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) receptor antagonists and cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent protein kinase (PKA) inhibitor. Treatment with PGE2 decreased the expression of Bax and inhibited hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis of C-33A cells. We concluded that HPV16 E5 protein inhibits hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis of cervical cancer cells by stimulating the ubiquitin–proteasome-mediated degradation of Bax protein, and the pathway involves COX-2, PGE2 and PKA. This finding suggests the possibility that HPV 16 E5 protein contributes to cervical carcinogenesis by inhibiting apoptosis of transformed cervical epithelial cells.

  Y. S Park , J. H Park , S. H Kim , M. H Lee , Y. S Lee , S. C Yang and J. S. Kang

Limaprost, a prostaglandin E1 analogue, with a strong vasodilatory and antiplatelet activity has been used to release from the symptoms of thromboangiitis obliterans (TAO), which is more prevalent in Korea and Japan, and lumbar spinal canal stenosis (LSCS). In spite of many uses of limaprost, the pharmacokinetics (PK) of it has not been studied in the Korean population. Therefore, a preliminary PK study was designed at a clinical oral dosage of 30-µg limaprost in 5 healthy Korean volunteers. Blood samples were obtained at 14 consecutive time points for 12 hours after dosing and analyzed by liquid chromatography—tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization (LC-ESI/MS/ MS) at a very low detection limit of 0.5 pg/mL of limaprost in human plasma with considerably short run time (18 minutes). Pharmacokinetic characteristics resulted in ‘‘time for maximal concentrations (Tmax 0.5 hour),’’ ‘‘elimination half-life (T1/2 1.64 hours),’’ ‘‘maximal concentration (Cmax 13.37 pg/mL),’’ ‘‘area under the curve (AUC12 hours 18.60 pg · h/mL),’’ ‘‘AUC extrapolated to infinity (AUCinfinity 22.98 pg · h/mL),’’ ‘‘extrapolation (AUCinfinity — 12 hours/AUCinfinity 0.15%),’’ ‘‘elimination rate constant (ke 0.68 h—1),’’ ‘‘systemic clearance (CL 1.77 L/h),’’ and ‘‘mean residence time (MRT 1.74 hours).’’ These results showed that orally administered 30-µg limaprost was rapidly and highly absorbed, and it was considerably eliminated fast from the blood stream in the healthy Korean volunteers.

  T Matsumoto , K Minegishi , H Ishimoto , M Tanaka , J. D Hennebold , T Teranishi , Y Hattori , M Furuya , T Higuchi , S Asai , S. H Kim , K Miyakoshi and Y. Yoshimura

Ovary-specific acidic protein (OSAP) is a novel molecule discovered from a genomic project designed to identify ovary-selective genes in mice. Whereas public databases suggest extraovarian expression of OSAP, its tissue distribution has not yet been well documented. Thus, the expression profile of mouse and human OSAP was determined by quantitative real-time RT-PCR using RNAs isolated from various tissues. The results demonstrate that the human and mouse OSAP expression profiles are similar; OSAP is prominently expressed in steroidogenic tissues with the highest level of expression observed in the adrenal gland. Placenta served as an exception and possessed minimal level of OSAP mRNA. Immunohistochemical studies show that mouse OSAP localizes almost exclusively to the steroid-producing cells of the ovary, adrenal gland, and testis. Consistent with predictions made by several subcellular localization algorithms, dual labeling studies in Y-1 mouse adrenocortical cells indicate OSAP resides in the mitochondria. Because of its abundant expression in steroidogenic cells and mitochondrial localization, a role for OSAP in steroidogenesis was determined. OSAP silencing by specific small interfering RNAs significantly inhibits 8-bromoadenosine-cAMP-induced progesterone production in Y-1 cells. Reduction in OSAP levels results in mitochondrial fragmentation and a decrease in the cellular content of mitochondrial DNA, indicative of decreased mitochondrial abundance. Lastly, 8-bromoadenosine-cAMP does not regulate OSAP protein expression in Y-1 cells as is the case for other steroidogenic components known to be induced by cAMP. Collectively these results suggest that OSAP is involved in steroidogenesis, potentially through its ability to maintain mitochondrial abundance and morphology.

  S. H Kim and Y. K. Lee

The objective of this study was to measure discolouration using a digital camera on various types of clear orthodontic elastic modules, immersion solutions, and time periods to determine whether the cause of discolouration of these modules was due to simple staining, chemical degradation, or both. Three types of clear orthodontic elastomeric modules were investigated [Plastic ligatures (AO); Power ‘O’s 012 (OC); dispense-A-tie (TP)]. The elastomeric modules were immersed in the stretched condition in distilled water (control group) and in 75 per cent ethanol for chemical degradation and 2 per cent methylene blue for simple staining. After 0, 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, and 21 hours and 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 days of immersion, digital images of the modules were taken and processed using commercial software. The differences in colour changes depending on the type of elastomeric modules, immersion solution, and immersion period were analysed using a three-way analysis of variance and Tukey’s multiple comparison test. The colour changes in the ethanol and methylene blue solutions by immersion period were analysed with regression analysis.

There were significant differences in discolouration depending on the type of elastomeric modules, immersion solution, and immersion period (P < 0.05). The range of colour changes ($$\mathrm{\Delta }{E}_{ab}^{*}$$) was 1.0–20.0 units for AO, 0.6–30.0 units for OC, and 1.1–18.8 units for TP, independent of immersion solution and time. Methylene blue resulted in the greatest colour change. Discolouration due to chemical degradation by the ethanol solution mainly occurred in the first few hours, reached a plateau with no further increase over time, and was greater than staining by methylene blue in that period. Discolouration due to staining by methylene blue, however, continued to increase over the whole immersion period. Therefore, discolouration of elastomeric modules was a result of chemical degradation as well as staining in the early stages but in the later stages was due only to simple staining.

  M. N Lee , S. N Lee , S. H Kim , B Kim , B. K Jung , J. H Seo , J. H Park , J. H Choi , S. H Yim , M. R Lee , J. G Park , J. Y Yoo , J. H Kim , S. T Lee , H. M Kim , S Ryeom , K. W Kim and G. T. Oh

Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), a critical mediator of tumor angiogenesis, is a well-characterized target of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1). Murine arrest-defective protein 1A (mARD1A225) acetylates HIF-1, triggering its degradation, and thus may play a role in decreased expression of VEGFA.


We generated ApcMin/+/mARD1A225 transgenic mice and quantified growth of intestinal polyps. Human gastric MKN74 and murine melanoma B16F10 cells overexpressing mARD1A225 were injected into mice, and tumor growth and metastasis were measured. VEGFA expression and microvessel density in tumors were assessed using immunohistochemistry. To evaluate the role of mARD1A225 acetylation of Lys532 in HIF-1, we injected B16F10-mARD1A225 cell lines stably expressing mutant HIF-1/K532R into mice and measured metastasis. All statistical tests were two-sided, and P values less than .05 were considered statistically significant.


ApcMin/+/mARD1A225 transgenic mice (n = 25) had statistically significantly fewer intestinal polyps than ApcMin/+ mice (n = 21) (number of intestinal polyps per mouse: ApcMin/+ mice vs ApcMin/+/mARD1A225 transgenic mice, mean = 83.4 vs 38.0 polyps, difference = 45.4 polyps, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 41.8 to 48.6; P < .001). The growth and metastases of transplanted tumors were also statistically significantly reduced in mice injected with mARD1A225-overexpressing cells than in mice injected with control cells (P < .01). Moreover, overexpression of mARD1A225 decreased VEGFA expression and microvessel density in tumor xenografts (P < .04) and ApcMin/+ intestinal polyps (P = .001). Mutation of lysine 532 of HIF-1 in B16F10-mARD1A225 cells prevented HIF-1 degradation and inhibited the antimetastatic effect of mARD1A225 (P < .001).


mARD1A225 may be a novel upstream target that blocks VEGFA expression and tumor-related angiogenesis.

  J. H Oh , H. K Lee , J. Y Kim , S. H Kim and H. S. Gong

Although arthroscopic glenoid labrum repair using the BioKnotless anchor is common, the benefits and efficacy have not been fully evaluated.


BioKnotless suture anchor is a clinically and radiologically suitable material for arthroscopic labral repair.

Study Design

Case series; Level of evidence, 4.


Ninety-seven patients underwent arthroscopic glenoid labrum repair with BioKnotless anchor between July 2004 and December 2005. Thirty-seven patients had traumatic anterior instability and 60 patients had an isolated superior labrum, anterior-posterior (SLAP) lesion. The mean age at surgery was 36.0 years (range, 15–66); the average follow-up was 34.1 months (range, 24–54). Clinical outcomes were evaluated using range of motion and various functional evaluation scores including sports activity. Pain and patient satisfaction were measured using a visual analog scale (VAS). Computed tomography arthrography was conducted in 73 patients at least 1 year after surgery for radiologic evaluation.


In patients with instability, the Western Ontario Shoulder Instability index and Rowe score improved from 53.2 to 85.9 and from 68.7 to 92.7, respectively. Return to normal recreation and sports were possible in 30 patients (81.1%); the mean satisfaction VAS was 9.2. There was 1 postoperative dislocation, and the apprehension test was positive in 1 case. Postoperative range of motion including external rotation was not different. In patients with a SLAP lesion, the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score and Constant score improved from 67.3 to 96.0 and 79.1 to 96.8, respectively. Pain VAS decreased from 6.0 to 0.4, and the mean satisfaction VAS was 9.4. Return to normal recreation and sports were possible in 50 patients (83.3%). All labra were found to have firmly healed to bony glenoid rim without anchor-related osteolysis in postoperative CT arthrography.


Clinically and radiologically, the BioKnotless anchor appears to be an acceptable alternative for arthroscopic labrum repair, and a suitable material allowing the avoidance of certain troublesome drawbacks of the conventional knot-tying suture anchor.

  J. H Oh , S. H Kim , J. Y Kang , C. H Oh and H. S. Gong

There are numerous reports on the outcome of rotator cuff repair according to age. However, the results are conflicting and driven by univariate analysis, which is not free of confounding factors.


Age does not affect the anatomical and functional outcomes of rotator cuff repair.

Study design

Case series; Level of evidence, 4.

Materials and Methods

Eighty-one men and 96 women underwent rotator cuff repair at one institution and received computed tomography arthrography and functional evaluations at least 1 year after surgery. Various structural and clinical features according to age were evaluated. The correlation was assessed between age and outcomes, with adjustment for the preoperative score.


Patient mean age was 60.0 ± 8.7 years. The mean ages were higher in women, nonsmokers, and those with positive paradoxical abduction, lower level of sports activity, the presence of biceps injury, higher fatty degeneration in cuff muscles, inferior isokinetic muscle performance, bigger tear size, more retraction of tear, and symptomatic acromioclavicular arthritis. For the integrity of the repair, the mean age was higher in the retear group (31.1%) than in the intact group (68.9%)—that is, 63.7 ± 7.5 and 58.4 ± 8.7 years, respectively (P <.001). Only the Constant score exhibited a positive correlation with age after adjustment (P = .009). Univariate regression analysis revealed that a 0.313-point increment of Constant score could be expected for each year of age.


On univariate analysis, older age was related with poor postoperative integrity and better functional improvement in Constant score. Multivariate regression revealed that age was not an independent determinant for anatomical or functional outcome whereas the tear retraction and fatty degeneration of the infraspinatus were independent factors for the integrity of repair and the presence of the paradoxical abduction and abduction torque of the unaffected shoulder for the Constant score.

  S. J Kim , K. H Park , S. H Kim , S. G Kim and Y. M. Chun

Background: Recent reports revealed that outcomes of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction in middle- or old-age patients are comparable with those of young patients. However, in case of concomitant arthrosis in the affected knee, there has been a paucity of literature regarding the outcomes of ACL reconstruction. We studied the level of improvement in pain originating from significant cartilage degeneration in middle-aged ACL-deficient patients after ACL reconstruction. We divided the pain into pain at rest and activity-induced pain.

Hypothesis: The activity-induced pain would be more improved by ACL reconstruction than the pain at rest.

Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4.

Methods: We studied 36 patients who had undergone arthroscopic isolated ACL reconstruction for functional instability with significant cartilage degeneration grade III or IV without mensical injury. All patients had activity-induced pain; 20 of these patients also had pain at rest. To assess the pain level, the visual analog scale (VAS) was employed, in addition to radiologic and clinical evaluations such as the Lachman test, KT-2000 arthrometer, and pivot shift test. The mean age of the patients was 48.6 years (range, 41-61 years); mean follow-up was 46.7 months (range, 27-74 months).

Results: The preoperative mean VAS of the activity-induced pain (4.1 ± 1.0; range, 2-6) showed significant improvement at the most recent follow-up (2.0 ± 1.0; range, 0-4; P < .0001). However, the preoperative mean VAS of the pain at rest (2.9 ± 0.9; range, 2-5) did not improve significantly at the most recent follow-up (2.5 ± 0.8; range, 1-4; P = .149). The Lachman test, KT-2000 arthrometer, andpivot shift test showed significant improvement compared with preoperative outcomes (P < .0001). There was no significant difference in radiologic assessment between preoperative and postoperative outcomes (P = .082).

Conclusion: Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in middle-aged patients with significant cartilage degeneration is effective in reducing activity-induced pain and instability. Even though all patients had less than severe arthritic changes on preoperative radiographs, the pain at rest did not improve after ACL reconstruction.

  J. H Oh , S. H Kim , K. H Kim , C. H Oh and H. S. Gong

Background: Most patients experience a significant reduction in pain after rotator cuff repair. However, there is currently no method to predict the level of pain reduction that each patient will experience. This report explores the usefulness of the modified impingement test for prognosis in cases of rotator cuff repair.

Hypothesis: The amount of pain reduction after injection of lidocaine into the subacromial space preoperatively correlates with the level of pain reduction after rotator cuff repair.

Study Design: Cohort study (prognosis); Level of evidence, 2.

Methods: Preoperatively, a visual analog scale for pain was measured in 153 patients (59 males and 94 females) with a rotator cuff tear before and after injection of lidocaine into the subacromial space. Subsequently, rotator cuff repair was performed. At least 1 year after surgery, the visual analog scale for pain and satisfaction, Constant score, Simple Shoulder Test, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score, and University of California, Los Angeles shoulder rating scale were evaluated. Correlation analyses were performed between the change in visual analog scale after the modified impingement test and after surgery.

Results: The amount of pain reduction after the modified impingement test was significantly related to improvement of pain postoperatively (P < .001), as measured using the visual analog scale for pain. The change in ASES score was also related to the amount of pain reduction after the modified impingement test (P = .001); however, the other tests showed no statistical significance (P > .05). Univariate regression analysis revealed that a 0.621-unit reduction in postoperative pain on the visual analog scale could be expected for each 1 unit (on a scale of 10) reduction in pain after lidocaine injection preoperatively.

Conclusion: The amount of pain reduction after the modified impingement test preoperatively correlated with the improvement of pain after rotator cuff repair. This simple preoperative test could help patients understand the subjective level of pain reduction that they may experience after rotator cuff repair.

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