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Articles by S. Farooq
Total Records ( 7 ) for S. Farooq
  M. Asghar , A. R. Rao and S. Farooq
  Intergeneric hybrids were produced between hexaploid wheat variety Chinese Spring and five different accessions of Aegilops geniculata; 2n=4x=28 CUCUMOMO (Aegilops ovata). The objective was to detect differences in chromosomal associations at meiotic metaphase-1 in the Fl hybrids using squash preparations of prefixed immature anthers. Chromosome pairing between all the hybrids raged between 35 univalents to 3 rod bivalents except for hybrid between Chinese Spring x Ae. geniculata accession 361881. This hybrid exhibited chromosome pairing up to 4 rod bivalents, 1 ring bivalent and 2 trivalents with the chiasma frequency of 4.10 per cell. This indicated possibilities of homoeologous chromosome pairing and genetic exchange between chromosomes of wheat and of Ae. geniculata. Significance of this pairing and the potential of Ae. geniculata for improvement of stress tolerance in wheat would be discussed in detail.
  N. Iqbal and S. Farooq
  Isozyme analyses were used to detect inter- and intraspecific variation in different accessions of wild rice species, 0. officinallis and 0. punctata. Some F1 hybrids between cultivated and wild rice species were also utilized. Fresh leaf extracts were electrophoresed on polyacrylamide gels. Different isozymes viz., Esterases, Glutamate oxaloacetate transaminases and peroxidases were used as biochemical markers. On the basis of isozyme banding profiles, distinct variations were observed between and within the two wild rice species and their different accessions. Based on polymorphic isozyme profiles, hybrids of rice cultivars, Basmati 198 x 0. officinalis, Nonabokra x 0. malampuzhaensis ace: 100957 and EF-6 x 0. malampuzhaensis ace: 100957 were also identified. Our study demonstrated that isozyme markers can successfully be used for detection of genetic diversity as well as for the identification of hybrids.
  F. Azam and S. Farooq
  Form (NH4 or NO3) and availability of N has significant implications to the functioning and sustainability of agroecosystems. Most of the fertilizer nitrogen (N) applied to agricultural soils is in the form of NH4 or NH4-forming fertilizers. This form of N is rapidly oxidized to NO3 by nitrifying microorganisms leading to significant losses of N through NO3-leaching and denitrification. Both denitrification and NO3-leaching have environmental implications and economic concerns. Strategies have therefore been sought to regulate the process of nitrification leading to its complete or partial inhibition. Indeed, climax ecosystems are developed in such a way that the process of nitrification is already fairly inhibited. This paper presents an overview on: I) the process of nitrification, ii) microorganisms involved, iii) the implications of nitrification and nitrification inhibition to ecosystem functioning and finally iv) the methods to inhibit nitrification.
  F. Azam , S. Farooq and A. Lodhi
  Microbial biomass is a small but labile component of soil organic matter and plays an important role in cycling and other nutrient elements. Because of its importance in the functioning of different ecosystems, synthesis/dynamics of microbial biomass and its role in plant nutrition under different ecosystem conditions has assumed greater significance. In the same perspective, developing quick and convenient methods of determination have been of immense research interest for the least few decades. As a result significant improvements have thus far been made although no single method is devoid of snags. This paper presents I) a critical evaluation of methods to determine microbial biomass and ii) a review on the formation/dynamics of microbial biomass and its role in plant nutrition. Since carbon © and nitrogen (N) are the major elements, special attention has been given to these while discussing microbial biomass.
  F. Azam and S. Farooq
  Atmospheric concentration of CO2 has increased significantly over the past few decades and so have the concerns about the greenhouse effect and global warming. One of the extensively explored aspects is the response of ecosystem components in terms of performance and productivity. A host of information thus generated suggests a positive effect of elevated CO2 on functioning of plants from seed germination through maturation vis-a-vis rhizospheric microbial functions. Amazingly, most (if not all) of the researches deal with plant responses to CO2 at levels twice that of ambient with a view that fossil fuel burning and increased agricultural activity are adding substantially to the atmospheric CO2 . As such, hardly any attention has been paid to the contribution of soil respiration (includes that of microbes and plant roots) to CO2 concentration within the soil matrix as well as above the soil surface. This study presents an analysis of the available literature to demonstrate that by default the plant communities are already functioning at elevated levels of CO2 . Any further increase due to human intervention (especially fossil fuel burning) may not have a significant effect on plant functions and productivity. Hence the potential dangers of elevated CO2 resulting from fossil fuel burning should not be considered as alleviated through increased plant productivity.
  F. Azam and S. Farooq
  Over the past few decades, global warming vis-a-vis elevated CO2 and other greenhouse gases (GHGs) has remained an issue of concern for researchers, environmentalists and policy makers. Fossil fuels have been blamed for most of the rise in atmospheric CO2 over the recent past in spite of the fact that water vapour (WV) is the predominant greenhouse gas (atmospheric concentration of 1-2% i.e., 27-54 times that of CO2 and >95% contribution to greenhouse effect) and mostly of natural origin. Incidentally, most if not all, statistics on GHGs overlooks WV creating the impression of human intervention (anthropogenic) as the dominant contributor to global warming. Similarly, role of evapotranspiration (ET) from the vegetated land in elevating the atmospheric concentration of WV is almost completely overlooked. According to highly conservative estimates ET from agricultural lands is responsible for adding >22x1012 t year-1 to the total atmospheric water of 30-60x012 t. These are astonishing high contributions to atmospheric WV that need to be considered when assessing anthropogenic (agricultural activity is certainly an anthropogenic activity) aspects of global warming. This review takes an account of these factors ultimately suggesting that i) ET is capable of raising the atmospheric WV concentration significantly and ii) evolution and introduction of crop types more efficient in water use may help resolve the problem.
  F. Azam , F. Aziz , S. Farooq and A. Lodhi
  A greenhouse experiment was conducted to assess the chamber effect on growth and nitrogen fixation in Sesbania aculeata (L.) at two levels each of soil salinity (electrical conductivity 4.65 and 7.23 dS m-1) and moisture (15 and 25%, v/w). The plants were grown either in the open or placed in an open-top polyethylene chamber and harvested 6 weeks after seed sowing. Salinization of soil led to a decrease, while higher moisture caused an increase, in different growth attributes of the plants. Growth reduction due to salt stress was less than that due to low moisture stress. Plants kept in the open-top polyethylene chamber showed better growth than those placed outside (in the open); all the parameters studied were better in the chamber. Chamber effect measured as Biomass Enhancement Ratio (BER) averaged 1.22 for different salinity and moisture treatments. However, root biomass of plants grown in the chamber was less than those grown in the open. Negative effect of salinity and low moisture was mitigated to a significant extent under chamber conditions. The analysis of root and shoot material for total N and 15N showed significant amounts of N2 being fixed as measured by isotopic dilution technique. Significantly higher amounts of N were fixed at 25 than 15% soil moisture; soil salinity had a depressing effect on the amount of N2 fixed. The contribution of biologically-fixed N (Ndfa) to the total N content of shoot and root portions was 23-62% and 21-52%, respectively, under different growth conditions. Contribution of Ndfa decreased with salinity but was more at 25% than 15% soil moisture.
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