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Articles by S. D Solomon
Total Records ( 6 ) for S. D Solomon
  L. M Dong , W. J Stark , J. L Jefferys , S Al Hazzaa , S. B Bressler , S. D Solomon and N. M. Bressler

Objective  To document age-related macular degeneration (AMD) progression after cataract surgery.

Methods  Surgeons prospectively enrolled patients with nonneovascular AMD who were awaiting cataract surgery. Fluorescein angiography was performed preoperatively and at the postoperative week 1, month 3, and month 12 visits. Incidence of neovascular AMD development within 12 months after operation was the primary outcome measure.

Results  A total of 108 subjects were enrolled. Of 86 eyes with preoperatively photographically confirmed nonneovascular AMD, 71 had gradable images by month 12. Neovascular AMD was observed in 9 of 71 eyes (12.7%; 95% confidence interval, 6.0%-22.7%). The progression rate between week 1 and month 12 decreased to 3 of 65 eyes (4.6%; 95% confidence interval, 1.0%-12.9%) after excluding 5 neovascular events identified on the postoperative week 1 visit and 1 case with missing photographs at this visit.

Conclusion  The low incidence rate of neovascular AMD development between 1 week and 1 year after cataract surgery did not support the hypothesis that cataract surgery increases the risk of AMD progression. Several eyes appeared to have disease progression on postsurgery week 1 fluorescein angiograms, suggesting that many cases of presumed progression to neovascular AMD following cataract surgery may have been present prior to cataract surgery, but not recognized owing to lens opacity.

  T Cai , L Tian , H Uno , S. D Solomon and L. J. Wei

For modern evidence-based medicine, decisions on disease prevention or management strategies are often guided by a risk index system. For each individual, the system uses his/her baseline information to estimate the risk of experiencing a future disease-related clinical event. Such a risk scoring scheme is usually derived from an overly simplified parametric model. To validate a model-based procedure, one may perform a standard global evaluation via, for instance, a receiver operating characteristic analysis. In this article, we propose a method to calibrate the risk index system at a subject level. Specifically, we developed point and interval estimation procedures for t-year mortality rates conditional on the estimated parametric risk score. The proposals are illustrated with a dataset from a large clinical trial with post-myocardial infarction patients.

  S. H Shin , C. L Hung , H Uno , A. H Hassanein , A Verma , M Bourgoun , L Kober , J. K Ghali , E. J Velazquez , R. M Califf , M. A Pfeffer , S. D Solomon and for the Valsartan in Acute Myocardial Infarction Trial (VALIANT) Investigators

Background— Mechanical dyssynchrony is considered an independent predictor for adverse cardiovascular outcomes in patients with heart failure. However, its importance as a risk factor after myocardial infarction is not well defined.

Methods and Results— We examined the influence of mechanical dyssynchrony on outcome in patients with left ventricular dysfunction, heart failure, or both after myocardial infarction who were enrolled in the Valsartan in Acute Myocardial Infarction (VALIANT) echocardiography study. B-mode speckle tracking with velocity vector imaging was used to assess ventricular synchrony in 381 patients who had image quality sufficient for analysis. Time to regional peak velocity and time to strain rate were measured among 12 left ventricular segments from the apical 4- and 2- chamber views, and the SDs between all 12 segments were used as a measure of dyssynchrony. The relationships between the SD of time to regional peak velocity and strain rate and clinical outcome of death or heart failure were assessed. In a multivariate Cox model adjusted for clinical and echocardiographic variables, the SD of time to peak velocity (hazard ratio per 10 ms, 1.10; 95% confidence interval, 1.02 to 1.18; P=0.010) and the SD of time to strain rate (hazard ratio per 10 ms, 1.16; 95% confidence interval, 1.06 to 1.27; P=0.001) were independent predictors of death or heart failure.

Conclusion— Left ventricular dyssynchrony is independently associated with increased risk of death or heart failure after myocardial infarction, suggesting that contractile pattern may play a role in post–myocardial infarction prognosis.

  E. F Lewis , S. D Solomon , K. A Jablonski , M. M Rice , F Clemenza , J Hsia , A. P Maggioni , M Zabalgoitia , T Huynh , T. E Cuddy , B. J Gersh , J Rouleau , E Braunwald , M. A Pfeffer and on behalf of the PEACE Investigators

Background— Heart failure (HF) is a disease commonly associated with coronary artery disease. Most risk models for HF development have focused on patients with acute myocardial infarction. The Prevention of Events with Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibition population enabled the development of a risk model to predict HF in patients with stable coronary artery disease and preserved ejection fraction.

Methods and Results— In the 8290, Prevention of Events with Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibition patients without preexisting HF, new-onset HF hospitalizations, and fatal HF were assessed over a median follow-up of 4.8 years. Covariates were evaluated and maintained in the Cox regression multivariable model using backward selection if P<0.05. A risk score was developed and converted to an integer-based scoring system. Among the Prevention of Events with Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibition population (age, 64±8; female, 18%; prior myocardial infarction, 55%), there were 268 cases of fatal and nonfatal HF. Twelve characteristics were associated with increased risk of HF along with several baseline medications, including older age, history of hypertension, and diabetes. Randomization to trandolapril independently reduced the risk of HF. There was no interaction between trandolapril treatment and other risk factors for HF. The risk score (range, 0 to 21) demonstrated excellent discriminatory power (c-statistic 0.80). Risk of HF ranged from 1.75% in patients with a risk score of 0% to 33% in patients with risk score ≥16.

Conclusion— Among patients with stable coronary artery disease and preserved ejection fraction, traditional and newer factors were independently associated with increased risk of HF. Trandolopril decreased the risk of HF in these patients with preserved ejection fraction.

  E. S Chung , D Dan , S. D Solomon , A. J Bank , J Pastore , A Iyer , R. D Berger , J. O Franklin , G Jones , C Machado and C. M. Stolen

Left ventricular (LV) remodeling has been attributed to the segmental loss of viable myocardium due to myocardial infarction (MI), which results in redistribution of cardiac workload, with increased regional wall stress in and around the infarct zone. Because ventricular pacing has been shown to reduce regional wall stress and workload in regions near the pacing site, this trial was designed to test whether chronic pacing near the infarct attenuates LV remodeling.

Methods and Results—

Eighty patients with an anterior MI, peak creatine kinase >2000 mU/mL, ejection fraction ≤35%, wall motion abnormality (WMA) in >5 of 16 segments, and QRS <120 ms, were randomized to either control (implantable cardioverter-defribillator [ICD]) or biventricular pacing with peri-infarct LV lead placement (cardiac resynchronization therapy [CRT]-D) arms between 2 and 14 days after the MI. The primary end point—change in LV end-diastolic volume (LVEDV) from baseline to 12 months—was not significantly different between the 2 groups (CRT, 10.6±27.7 mL; ICD, 11.2±31.2 mL; 2-sample t test P>0.05). In a hypothesis-generating secondary analysis, there was a sustained reduction in the WMA score at 12 months in paced patients (CRT, –0.16±0.28; ICD, –0.01±0.24, 2-sample t test P=0.03). No differences were found in the therapy-related event rate, hospitalizations, or mortality (all P>0.05).


Chronic pacing in the infarct region did not alter the primary end point of LV remodeling over 1 year.

Clinical Trial Registration—

URL: Unique identifier: NCT00605631.

  C Berry , K. S Pieper , H. D White , S. D Solomon , F Van de Werf , E. J Velazquez , A. P Maggioni , R. M Califf , M. A Pfeffer and J. J.V. McMurray

The number of patients presenting with an acute myocardial infarction (MI) and prior coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is increasing. We compared the baseline characteristics, treatment, and clinical outcomes of patients with and without prior CABG in the VALIANT trial.

Methods and results

Of the 14 703 patients with heart failure (HF), left ventricular systolic dysfunction, or both enrolled in VALIANT, 1026 (7%) had prior CABG. Prior CABG patients were older [mean age (SD): 67 (10) vs. 65 (12) years; P < 0.0001], had more comorbidity, and more frequent non-Q wave MI (66 vs. 30%; P < 0.0001). At hospital presentation, prior CABG patients received less aspirin (82 vs. 90%; P < 0.0001) and thrombolysis (21 vs. 36%; P < 0.0001), but had a similar rate of primary percutaneous coronary intervention (14 vs. 15%; P = 0.2). Prior CABG patients were more likely to experience the composite outcome of cardiovascular death, MI, HF, resuscitated cardiac arrest, or stroke; 3 year Kaplan–Meier rate, 64 vs. 39% (adjusted hazard ratio 1.29, 95% confidence interval 1.17–1.43; P < 0.0001).


Patients with prior CABG had a worse clinical profile and experienced more fatal and non-fatal outcomes. Greater recognition is necessary for these high-risk patients including optimization of evidence-based secondary preventive therapy.

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