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Articles by S. D Russell
Total Records ( 4 ) for S. D Russell
  R Jain , D Dalal , A Daly , C Tichnell , C James , A Evenson , T Abraham , B. Y Tan , H Tandri , S. D Russell , D Judge and H. Calkins

Background— The purpose of this study was to reevaluate the ECG features of arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD). The second objective was to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the standard and newly proposed diagnostic ECG markers in the presence of a right bundle-branch block (RBBB).

Methods and Results— One hundred patients with ARVD (57 men; aged 39±15 years) and 57 controls (21 men; aged 40±17 years) were included. Among the 100 patients with ARVD, a complete RBBB was present in 17 patients, and 15 patients had an incomplete RBBB. T-wave inversion through V3 demonstrated optimal sensitivity and specificity in both ARVD patients without a complete RBBB or incomplete RBBB (71% [95% confidence interval, 58% to 81%] and 96% [95% confidence interval, 81% to 100%], respectively) and in ARVD patients with incomplete RBBB (73% [95% confidence interval, 45% to 92%] and 95% [95% confidence interval, 77% to 100%], respectively). Between ARVD patients and controls with a complete RBBB, the only 2 parameters that differed were the prevalence of T-wave inversion through V4 (59% versus 12%, respectively; P<0.05) and an r'/s ratio in V1 <1 (88% versus 14%, respectively; P<0.005). In ARVD patients with complete RBBB, the most sensitive and specific parameter was an r'/s ratio <1.

Conclusions— We evaluated comprehensively the diagnostic value of ECG markers for ARVD. On the basis of the findings, we propose an algorithm, with examination of QRS morphology being the first step, for ECG evaluation of ARVD patients. Definite criteria are then applied on the basis of the presence of no RBBB, incomplete RBBB, and complete RBBB to obtain the best diagnostic utility of the ECG.

  S. D Russell , J. G Rogers , C. A Milano , D. B Dyke , F. D Pagani , J. M Aranda , C. T Klodell , A. J Boyle , R John , L Chen , H. T Massey , D. J Farrar , J. V Conte and for the HeartMate II Clinical Investigators

Background— The effects of continuous blood flow and reduced pulsatility on major organ function have not been studied in detail.

Methods and Results— We evaluated renal (creatinine and blood urea nitrogen) and hepatic (aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, and total bilirubin) function in 309 (235 male, 74 female) advanced heart failure patients who had been supported with the HeartMate II continuous-flow left ventricular assist device for bridge to transplantation. To determine whether patients with impaired renal and hepatic function improve over time with continuous-flow left ventricular assist device support or whether there are any detrimental effects in patients with normal organ function, we divided patients into those with above-normal and normal laboratory values before implantation and measured blood chemistry over time during left ventricular assist device support. There were significant improvements over 6 months in all parameters in the above-normal groups, with values in the normal groups remaining in the normal range over time. Mean blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine in the above-normal groups decreased significantly from 37±14 to 23±10 mg/dL (P<0.0001) and from 1.8±0.4 to 1.4±0.8 mg/dL (P<0.01), respectively. There were decreases in aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase in the above-normal groups from 121±206 and 171±348 to 36±19 and 31±22 IU (P<0.001), respectively. Total bilirubin for the above-normal group was 2.1±0.9 mg/dL at baseline; after an acute increase at week 1, it decreased to 0.9±0.5 mg/dL by 6 months (P<0.0001). Both renal and liver values from patients in the normal groups remained normal during support with the left ventricular assist device.

Conclusions— The HeartMate II continuous-flow left ventricular assist device improves renal and hepatic function in advanced heart failure patients who are being bridged to transplantation, without evidence of detrimental effects from reduced pulsatility over a 6-month time period.

Clinical Trial Registration Information— URL: Unique identifier: NCT00121472.

  A. D den Haan , B. Y Tan , M. N Zikusoka , L. I Llado , R Jain , A Daly , C Tichnell , C James , N Amat Alarcon , T Abraham , S. D Russell , D. A Bluemke , H Calkins , D Dalal and D. P. Judge

Background— Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy (ARVD/C) is an inherited disorder typically caused by mutations in components of the cardiac desmosome. The prevalence and significance of desmosome mutations among patients with ARVD/C in North America have not been described previously. We report comprehensive desmosome genetic analysis for 100 North Americans with clinically confirmed or suspected ARVD/C.

Methods and Results— In 82 individuals with ARVD/C and 18 people with suspected ARVD/C, DNA sequence analysis was performed on PKP2, DSG2, DSP, DSC2, and JUP. In those with ARVD/C, 52% harbored a desmosome mutation. A majority of these mutations occurred in PKP2. Notably, 3 of the individuals studied have a mutation in more than 1 gene. Patients with a desmosome mutation were more likely to have experienced ventricular tachycardia (73% versus 44%), and they presented at a younger age (33 versus 41 years) compared with those without a desmosome mutation. Men with ARVD/C were more likely than women to carry a desmosome mutation (63% versus 38%). A mutation was identified in 5 of 18 patients (28%) with suspected ARVD. In this smaller subgroup, there were no significant phenotypic differences identified between individuals with a desmosome mutation compared with those without a mutation.

Conclusions— Our study shows that in 52% of North Americans with ARVD/C a mutation in one of the cardiac desmosome genes can be identified. Compared with those without a desmosome gene mutation, individuals with a desmosome gene mutation had earlier-onset ARVD/C and were more likely to have ventricular tachycardia.

  E. S Weiss , J. G Allen , N. D Patel , S. D Russell , W. A Baumgartner , A. S Shah and J. V. Conte

Introduction— Single-institution series have suggested that men receiving orthotopic heart transplantation from female donors have decreased survival. No multi-institutional series has comprehensively addressed the issue of donor and recipient sex matching for both male and female orthotopic heart transplantation recipients.

Methods and Results— We used data from the multi-institutional prospectively collected United Network for Organ Sharing open transplantation cohort to review 18 240 adult patients who received orthotopic heart transplantation from 1999 to 2007. Four donor recipient strata were identified (male donor/male recipient, N=10 750; female donor/female recipient, N=2201; male donor/female recipient, N=2121; and female donor/male recipient, N=3168). The primary end point of all cause posttransplant mortality was compared among groups using a Cox proportional hazard regression model with additional propensity adjustment. Female recipients, irrespective of donor sex, had 3.6% lower overall survival at 5 years posttransplant (P=0.003). Men who received organs from male donors had the highest cumulative survival at 5 years (74.5%). Men receiving female hearts had a 15% increase in the risk of adjusted cumulative mortality (hazard ratio, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.30; P=0.02). No significant increase in the relative hazard for death occurred for women receiving opposite sex donor organs (1.24; 0.92 to 1.35; P=0.31).

Conclusions— The United Network for Organ Sharing data set has provided a large sample examining donor recipient sex pairing in orthotopic heart transplantation. Men receiving organs for same sex donors have significantly improved short- and long-term survival. No survival advantage was seen for women with same sex donors.

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