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Articles by S. C Chen
Total Records ( 4 ) for S. C Chen
  S. C Chen , Y. T Lee , C. H Yen , K. C Lai , L. B Jeng , D. B Lin , P. H Wang , C. C Chen , M. C Lee and W. R. Bell

Background: pyogenic liver abscess (PLA) is a potentially life-threatening disease in middle-to-old aged persons.

Objective: to compare the differences in clinical features and outcomes between older and younger PLA patients, and to identify predictors of outcomes in older patients.

Design: retrospective chart review of all PLA patients between July 1999 and June 2007.

Setting: a 1,600-bed primary and tertiary care centre.

Subjects: in total, 339 patients were enrolled and included 118 ≥65 years of age (the elderly group) and 221 patients <65 years of age (the non-elderly group).

Methods: clinical features, laboratory, imaging and microbiologic findings, treatment and outcomes for each of the included patients were collected. The predictor of outcome was determined using logistic regression and purposeful selection of covariates.

Results: the elderly group had a higher APACHE II score on admission, a biliary abnormality, a malignancy, a pleural effusion, polymicrobial, anaerobic or multi-drug-resistant isolates, inappropriate initial antibiotics, a longer hospitalisation and a longer parenteral antibiotic treatment period than the non-elderly group, whereas the non-elderly group was more likely to be alcoholic men with cryptogenic origin of abscess and Klebsiella pneumoniae infection. There was no difference in case fatality between the elderly (13.6%) and non-elderly (8.6%) groups despite the elderly group having a poorer host status on admission. In multivariate analysis, age (P = 0.028) and APACHE II score at admission ≥15 (P = 0.001) were risk factors, but K. pneumoniae infection (P = 0.012) was a protective factor for fatality in older PLA patients.

Conclusions: these data suggest that older PLA patients wound have a fair outcome compared to younger patients, but require longer hospitalisations.

  A Bhattacharya , L Tang , Y Li , F Geng , J. D Paonessa , S. C Chen , M. K.K Wong and Y. Zhang

Bladder cancer is one of the common human cancers and also has a very high recurrence rate. There is a great need for agents capable of inhibiting bladder cancer development and recurrence. Here, we report that allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), an ingredient of many common cruciferous vegetables, potently inhibited the proliferation of bladder carcinoma cell lines in vitro [half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 2.7–3.3 µM], which was associated with profound G2/M arrest and apoptosis. In contrast, AITC was markedly less toxic to normal human bladder epithelial cells (IC50 of 69.4 µM). AITC was then evaluated in two rat bladder cancer models in vivo (an orthotopic model and a subcutaneous model). The orthotopic model closely mimics human bladder cancer development and recurrence. We show that a low oral dose of AITC (1 mg/kg) significantly inhibited the development and muscle invasion of the orthotopic bladder cancers but was ineffective against the subcutaneous xenografts of the same cancer cells in the same animals. This differential effect was explained by our finding that urinary levels of AITC equivalent were two to three orders of magnitude higher than that in the plasma and that its levels in the orthotopic cancer tissues were also three orders of magnitude higher than that in the subcutaneous cancer tissues. Moreover, we show that AITC is a multi-targeted agent against bladder cancer. In conclusion, AITC is selectively delivered to bladder cancer tissue through urinary excretion and potently inhibits bladder cancer development and invasion.

  B. M Chavers , C. A Solid , F. X Daniels , S. C Chen , A. J Collins , D. L Frankenfield and C. A. Herzog

Background and objectives: Data are limited regarding BP distribution and the prevalence of hypertension in pediatric long-term dialysis patients. This study aimed to examine BP distribution in U.S. pediatric long-term hemodialysis patients.

Design, setting, participants, & measurements: This cross-sectional study of all U.S. pediatric (aged 0-< 18 yr, n = 624) long-term hemodialysis patients was performed as part of the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) Clinical Performance Measures Project. BP and clinical information were collected monthly in October, November, and December 2001. Hypertension was defined as the mean of pre- and postdialysis systolic or diastolic BP above the 95th percentile for age, height, and sex, or antihypertensive medication use. Results were calculated by age, sex, race, ethnicity, ESRD duration, body mass index percentile, primary cause of ESRD, and laboratory data.

Results: Hypertension was present in 79% of patients; 62% used antihypertensive medication. Five percent of patients were prehypertensive (mean BP at 90th to 95th percentile). Hypertension was uncontrolled in 74% of treated patients. Characteristics associated with hypertension included acquired kidney disease, shorter duration of ESRD, and lower mean hemoglobin and calcium values. Characteristics associated with uncontrolled hypertension were younger age and shorter duration of ESRD.

Conclusions: Hypertension is common in U.S. pediatric long-term hemodialysis patients, uncontrolled in 74% of treated patients, and untreated in 21% of hypertensive patients. It is concluded that a more aggressive approach to treatment of hypertension is warranted in pediatric long-term hemodialysis patients.

  S. C Chen , R. S Khanna , D. C Bessette , L. A Samayawardhena and C. J. Pallen

Protein tyrosine phosphatase- (PTP) is a widely expressed receptor-type phosphatase that functions in multiple signaling systems. The actions of PTP can be regulated by its phosphorylation on serine and tyrosine residues, although little is known about the conditions that promote PTP phosphorylation. In this study, we tested the ability of several extracellular factors to stimulate PTP tyrosine phosphorylation. The growth factors IGF-I and acidic FGF induced the highest increase in PTP phosphorylation at tyrosine 789, followed by PMA and lysophosphatidic acid, while EGF had little effect. Further investigation of IGF-I-induced PTP tyrosine phosphorylation demonstrated that this occurs through a novel Src family kinase-independent mechanism that does not require focal adhesion kinase, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, or MEK. We also show that PTP physically interacts with the IGF-I receptor. In contrast to IGF-I-induced PTP phosphorylation, this association does not require IGF-I. The interaction of PTP and the IGF-I receptor is independent of PTP catalytic activity, and expression of exogenous PTP does not promote IGF-I receptor tyrosine dephosphorylation, indicating that PTP does not act as an IGF-I receptor phosphatase. However, PTP mediates IGF-I signaling, because IGF-I-stimulated fibroblast migration was reduced by ~50% in cells lacking PTP or in cells with mutant PTP lacking the tyrosine 789 phosphorylation site. Our results suggest that PTP tyrosine phosphorylation can occur in response to diverse stimuli and can be mediated by various tyrosine kinases. In the case of IGF-I, we propose that IGF-I-induced tyrosine 789 phosphorylation of PTP, possibly catalyzed by the PTP-associated IGF-I receptor tyrosine kinase, is required for efficient cell migration in response to this growth factor.

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