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Articles by S. Adhikari
Total Records ( 3 ) for S. Adhikari
  Lopa Ghosh and S. Adhikari
  The present investigation deals with the interaction between accumulation of waterborne lead, cadmium and chromium with different calcium concentration (1.0, 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0 mM L-1) in Cirrhina mrigala fingerlings in the laboratory. There was no mortality occurred in metal alone and metal treated with calcium. At the beginning there was no significant differences observed between Pb, Cd and Cr alone and combination with calcium in muscle as well as whole body at lower calcium concentration, but with increasing exposure period marked differences were observed. In muscle tissue accumulations was very much lower compared to whole body and significantly lower below human consumption level. In binary mixtures of Pb, Cd and Cr with calcium, the calcium compound was found to consistently reduce the toxic effect as well as accumulation of Pb, Cd and Cr compounds. Increased Ca levels showed lower transfer of Pb, Cd and Cr from water to the gills which resulted slower transfer of metal from the gills to the blood indicated lower accumulation rates in muscle tissue compared to metal without Ca. An increase in calcium concentration of approximately 3 and 4 mM L-1 resulted in a 46 and 54% decrease of Pb uptake, 55 and 58% of Cd and 41 and 53% of Cr uptake in whole fish at 28 days exposure period. There is an inverse relationship between calcium concentration in the water and metal uptake in whole body, muscle as well as gills of the Cirrhina mrigala. Calcium has strong antagonistic effect on Pb, Cd and Cr accumulation and toxicity. Predicted and experimental values of Pb, Cd and Cr concentration in fish body treated with calcium verified in terms of root mean square percent deviation and correlation coefficient which exhibit fair agreement.
  Lopa Ghosh , S. Adhikari and S. Ayyappan
  The present investigation deals with the distributions of three heavy metals, lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and chromium (Cr) in sediment and their availability in tissues of Labeo rohita (Hamilton) fingerlings. This study showed that Cd was available in exchangeable and carbonate fractions of the sediment, where as Pb and Cr was mainly existed in organic and residual organic fractions. This study revealed that Pb and Cr were more in gill tissues, while Cd was mainly concentrated in viscera. Significant relationships (p<0.05) between metals in different chemical fractions (exchangeable, carbonate, Fe-Mn oxide, organic and residual) of sediment and metals in fish organs (Pb in all organs, Cd in muscle, skin and viscera and Cr in muscle and gill) were found.
  Lopa Ghosh , S. Adhikari and S.Ayyappan
  The present study deals with the interaction between accumulation of waterborne lead and chromium in Labeo rohita fingerlings in the laboratory. There was no mortality occurred in individual and binary treatment. Kidney, liver, gill, skin and muscle of L. rohita exposed to sublethal concentration 0.10 μg Pb L-1 alone and 0.10 μg Pb L-1+0.15 μg Cr L-1 accumulated Pb linearly with time over 90 days and significant differences occurred with Pb alone. Lead accumulation in binary mixture Pb+Cr significantly decreases than Pb alone in all tissues of fish. So, the interactive effect of Cr on Pb accumulation was of antagonistic in nature. Cr is accumulated linearly with time in Kidney, liver and gill of L. rohita exposed to 0.15 μg Cr L-1 alone and 0.10 μg Pb L-1+0.15 μg Cr L-1 for 90 days. Muscle reached a steady state Cr levels after 60 days of exposure. The interactive effect of Pb on Cr accumulation was synergistic in nature in Pb+Cr mixture. The presence of Cr in a mixture decreases the accumulation of Pb. Though kidney, liver and gill tissues of L. rohita accumulated Pb and Cr above permissible level but muscle accumulates below human consumption level.
 
 
 
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