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Articles by S. A Smith
Total Records ( 3 ) for S. A Smith
  G Chodick , R. A Kleinerman , M Stovall , D. H Abramson , J. M Seddon , S. A Smith and M. A. Tucker

Objective  To investigate the risk of cataract extraction among adult retinoblastoma survivors.

Design  A retrospective cohort study was performed on retinoblastoma survivors who received the diagnosis from 1914 to 1984 and were interviewed in 2000. Lens doses were estimated from radiotherapy records. The cumulative time interval to cataract extraction between dose groups was compared using the log-rank test and Cox regression.

Results  Seven hundred fifty-three subjects (828 eyes) were available for analysis for an average of 32 years of follow-up. During this period, 51 cataract extractions were reported. One extraction was reported in an eye with no radiotherapy compared with 36 extractions in 306 eyes with 1 course of radiotherapy and 14 among 38 eyes with 2 or 3 treatments. The average time interval to cataract extraction in irradiated eyes was 51 years (95% confidence interval [CI], 48-54) following 1 treatment and 32 years (95% CI, 27-37) after 2 or 3 treatments. Eyes exposed to a therapeutic radiation dose of 5 Gy or more had a 6-fold increased risk (95% CI, 1.3-27.2) of cataract extraction compared with eyes exposed to 2.5 Gy or less.

Conclusions  The results emphasize the importance of ophthalmologic examination of retinoblastoma survivors who have undergone radiotherapy. The risk of cataract extraction in untreated eyes with retinoblastoma is comparable with the risk of the general population.

  M Ferring , M Claridge , S. A Smith and T. Wilmink

Background and objectives: Arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) are the preferred vascular access for hemodialysis but have a considerable failure rate. This study investigated whether routine preoperative vascular ultrasound results in better AVF outcome than physical examination.

Design, setting, participants, & measurements: Patients with end-stage kidney disease referred for permanent access formation were assessed by independent examiners using physical examination and ultrasound. After random allocation, the ultrasound report was disclosed to the surgeon for patients in the ultrasound group but not for the clinical group. End points were AVF failure and survival rates, analyzed by intention to treat and by use for hemodialysis.

Results: AVFs were made in 208 of 218 randomized patients. Clinical and ultrasound groups were similar in terms of patient characteristics, allocation to individual surgeons, and proportion of forearm AVFs. The ultrasound group had a significantly lower rate of immediate failure (4% versus 11%, P = 0.028) and, among failed AVFs, less thrombosis (38% versus 67%, P = 0.029). Primary AVF survival at 1 year was not statistically different (ultrasound = 65%, clinical = 56%, P = 0.081). Assisted primary AVF survival at 1 year was significantly better for the ultrasound group (80% versus 65%, P = 0.012). The number of patients requiring preoperative ultrasound to prevent one AVF failure was 12.

Conclusions: Routine preoperative vascular ultrasound in addition to clinical assessment improves AVF outcomes in terms of patency and use for dialysis. National Research Register, United Kingdom, trial number N0046131432.

  J. L Bernstein , R. W Haile , M Stovall , J. D Boice , R. E Shore , B Langholz , D. C Thomas , L Bernstein , C. F Lynch , J. H Olsen , K. E Malone , L Mellemkjaer , A. L Borresen Dale , B. S Rosenstein , S. N Teraoka , A. T Diep , S. A Smith , M Capanu , A. S Reiner , X Liang , R. A Gatti , P Concannon and and the WECARE Study Collaborative Group

Ionizing radiation is a known mutagen and an established breast carcinogen. The ATM gene is a key regulator of cellular responses to the DNA damage induced by ionizing radiation. We investigated whether genetic variants in ATM play a clinically significant role in radiation-induced contralateral breast cancer in women.


The Women's Environmental, Cancer, and Radiation Epidemiology Study is an international population-based case–control study nested within a cohort of 52 536 survivors of unilateral breast cancer diagnosed between 1985 and 2000. The 708 case subjects were women with contralateral breast cancer, and the 1397 control subjects were women with unilateral breast cancer matched to the case subjects on age, follow-up time, registry reporting region, and race and/or ethnicity. All women were interviewed and underwent full mutation screening of the entire ATM gene. Complete medical treatment history information was collected, and for all women who received radiotherapy, the radiation dose to the contralateral breast was reconstructed using radiotherapy records and radiation measurements. Rate ratios (RRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by using multivariable conditional logistic regression. All P values are two-sided.


Among women who carried a rare ATM missense variant (ie, one carried by <1% of the study participants) that was predicted to be deleterious, those who were exposed to radiation (mean radiation exposure = 1.2 Gy, SD = 0.7) had a statistically significantly higher risk of contralateral breast cancer compared with unexposed women who carried the wild-type genotype (0.01–0.99 Gy: RR = 2.8, 95% CI = 1.2 to 6.5; ≥1.0 Gy: RR = 3.3, 95% CI = 1.4 to 8.0) or compared with unexposed women who carried the same predicted deleterious missense variant (0.01–0.99 Gy: RR = 5.3, 95% CI = 1.6 to 17.3; ≥1.0 Gy: RR = 5.8, 95% CI = 1.8 to 19.0; Ptrend = .044).


Women who carry rare deleterious ATM missense variants and who are treated with radiation may have an elevated risk of developing contralateral breast cancer. However, the rarity of these deleterious missense variants in human populations implies that ATM mutations could account for only a small portion of second primary breast cancers.

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