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Articles by S Yin
Total Records ( 8 ) for S Yin
  J Xiao , S Yin , Y Li , S Xie , D Nie , L Ma , X Wang , Y Wu and J. Feng
 

S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (SKP2) gene is a tumor suppressor gene, and is involved in the ubiquitin-mediated degradation of P27kip1. SKP2 and P27kip1 affect the proceeding and prognosis of leukemia through regulating the proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation of leukemia cells. In this study, we explored the mechanism of reversing of HL-60/A drug resistance through SKP2 down-regulation. HL-60/A cells were nucleofected by Amaxa Nucleofector System with SKP2 siRNA. The gene and protein expression levels of Skp2, P27kip1, and multi-drug resistance associated protein (MRP) were determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis, respectively. The cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry. The 50% inhibitory concentration value was calculated using cytotoxic analysis according to the death rate of these two kinds of cells under different concentrations of chemotherapeutics to compare the sensitivity of the cells. HL-60/A cells showed multi-drug resistance phenotype characteristic by cross-resistance to adriamycin, daunorubicin, and arabinosylcytosine, due to the expression of MRP. We found that the expression of SKP2 was higher in HL-60/A cells than in HL-60 cells, but the expression of P27kip1 was lower. The expression of SKP2 in HL-60/A cells nucleofected by SKP2 siRNA was down-regulated whereas the protein level of P27kip1 was up-regulated. Compared with the MRP expression level in the control group (nucleofected by control siRNA), the mRNA and protein expression levels of MRP in HL-60/A cells nucleofected by SKP2 siRNA were lower, and the latter cells were more sensitive to adriamycin, daunorubicin, and arabinosylcytosine. Down-regulating the SKP2 expression and arresting cells in the G0/G1 phase improve drug sensitivity of leukemia cells with down-regulated MRP expression.

  M. A Retamal , S Yin , G. A Altenberg and L. Reuss
 

Gap-junction hemichannels are composed of six protein subunits (connexins). Undocked hemichannels contribute to physiological autocrine/paracrine cell signaling, including release of signaling molecules, cell-volume regulation, and glucose uptake. In addition, hemichannels may be pathologically activated by dephosphorylation and cell-membrane depolarization. Such hemichannel opening may induce and/or accelerate cell death. It has been suggested that connexin43 (Cx43) hemichannels are sensitive to redox potential changes and that one or more intracellular cysteines is/are important for this process. Cx46 is expressed in the lens, and its dysfunction induces cataract formation. It contains six cysteines in the extracellular loops, one in the fourth transmembrane helix, and two in the COOH-terminal domain. The latter may be susceptible to oxidation by nitric oxide (NO), which could be involved in cataract formation through cysteine S-nitrosylation. Here we report studies of the effects of the NO donor S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) on the electrical properties and fluorescent-dye permeability of wild-type Cx46 and mutant hemichannels expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. GSNO enhanced hemichannel voltage sensitivity, increased tail-current amplitude, and changed activation and closing kinetics in Cx46 and Cx46-CT43 (Cx46 mutant in which the COOH terminus was replaced with that of Cx43), but not in Cx46-C3A (Cx46 in which the intracellular and transmembrane helix 4 cysteines were mutated to alanine). We conclude that Cx46 hemichannels are sensitive to NO and that the NO effects are mediated by modification of one or more intracellular cysteines. However, it is unlikely that NO induces cataract formation due to the hemichannel activation, because at normal resting potential, NO had no major effects on Cx46 hemichannel permeability.

  M. A Retamal , S Yin , G. A Altenberg and L. Reuss
 

Gap junction channels are formed by two hemichannels in series (one from each neighboring cell), which are in turn connexin hexamers. Under normal conditions, hemichannels at the plasma membrane are mostly closed but can be opened by changes in membrane voltage, extracellular divalent ion concentration, phosphorylation, pH, and redox potential. Recently, interactions between channels have been found to modulate the activity of several ion channels, including gap junction channels. Here, we studied whether connexin46 (Cx46) hemichannels display such behavior. We studied the response of the Cx46 hemichannels expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes to consecutive depolarization pulses. Hemichannels formed by wild-type Cx46 and a COOH-terminal domain truncation mutant (Cx46CT) were activated by voltage pulses. When the hemichannels were depolarized repeatedly from –60 mV to +80 mV, the amplitude of the outward and tail currents increased progressively with successive pulses. This phenomenon ("current facilitation") depended on the amplitude of the depolarization, reaching a maximum at approximately +60 mV in oocytes expressing Cx46, and on the interval between pulses, disappearing with intervals longer than about 20 s. The current facilitation was also present in oocytes expressing Cx46CT, ruling out a primary role of this domain in the facilitation. Nominal removal of divalent cations from the extracellular side caused maximal current activation of Cx46 and Cx46CT hemichannels and prevented facilitation. The results suggest that Cx46 hemichannels show a cooperative activation independent of their COOH-terminal domain.

 
 
 
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