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Articles by S Yamada
Total Records ( 8 ) for S Yamada
  A Martinez Fernandez , T. J Nelson , S Yamada , S Reyes , A. E Alekseev , C Perez Terzic , Y Ikeda and A. Terzic
 

Rationale: Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS) allow derivation of pluripotent progenitors from somatic sources. Originally, iPS were induced by a stemness-related gene set that included the c-MYC oncogene.

Objective: Here, we determined from embryo to adult the cardiogenic proficiency of iPS programmed without c-MYC, a cardiogenicity-associated transcription factor.

Methods and Results: Transgenic expression of 3 human stemness factors SOX2, OCT4, and KLF4 here reset murine fibroblasts to the pluripotent ground state. Transduction without c-MYC reversed cellular ultrastructure into a primitive archetype and induced stem cell markers generating 3-germ layers, all qualifiers of acquired pluripotency. Three-factor induced iPS (3F-iPS) clones reproducibly demonstrated cardiac differentiation properties characterized by vigorous beating activity of embryoid bodies and robust expression of cardiac Mef2c, -actinin, connexin43, MLC2a, and troponin I. In vitro isolated iPS-derived cardiomyocytes demonstrated functional excitation-contraction coupling. Chimerism with 3F-iPS derived by morula-stage diploid aggregation was sustained during prenatal heart organogenesis and contributed in vivo to normal cardiac structure and overall performance in adult tumor-free offspring.

Conclusions: Thus, 3F-iPS bioengineered without c-MYC achieve highest stringency criteria for bona fide cardiogenesis enabling reprogrammed fibroblasts to yield de novo heart tissue compatible with native counterpart throughout embryological development and into adulthood.

  S Yamada , H Ishii , H Takahashi , T Aoyama , Y Morita , H Kasuga , K Kimura , Y Ito , R Takahashi , T Toriyama , Y Yasuda , M Hayashi , H Kamiya , Y Yuzawa , S Maruyama , S Matsuo , T Matsubara and T. Murohara
 

Background and objectives: Cardiac failure is directly affected by left ventricular (LV) dysfunction, and particularly LV systolic dysfunction is strongly associated with survival in ESRD patients. The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic value of reduced LV ejection fraction (LVEF) measured at the time of initiation of hemodialysis (HD) in incident HD patients.

Design, setting, participants, & measurements: 1254 consecutive ESRD patients who electively started HD therapy were screened by echocardiography within 1 month after its inception. They were divided into five groups according to LVEF levels with a decrease of 0.1 each and were followed up for up to 7 years. Survival was examined with the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using the log-rank test.

Results: Among the 1254 patients, LVEF levels ≥0.6, 0.5 to 0.6, 0.4 to 0.5, 0.3 to 0.4, and <0.3 were seen in 842 (67.1%), 247 (19.7%), 107 (8.5%), 41 (3.3%), and 17 (1.4%) patients, respectively. On Kaplan-Meier analysis, 7-year event-free rates from cardiovascular death were 84.2, 83.7, 73.6, 59.4, and 30.9% in order of groups with decreasing LVEF of 0.1 each, respectively. Seven-year event-free rates from all-cause death were 69.2, 61.7, 57.1, 45.9, and 23.1% in the respective groups. Even after adjustment for other risk factors, decreasing LVEF was a strong independent predictor for cardiovascular death.

Conclusions: Reduced LVEF on starting HD therapy could stratify risk of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in ESRD patients. Screening by echocardiography at start of HD therapy might be recommended to predict prognosis in patients with ESRD.

  Basappa , K. N Sugahara , G. B ten Dam , S Yamada and K. Sugahara
 

Cell surface heparan sulfate plays a critical role in regulating the metastatic behavior of tumor cells, whereas the role of chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate (CS/DS) has been little understood in this context. Here, we characterized CS/DS chains from the murine osteosarcoma cell line LM8G7, which forms tumor nodules in liver. Structural analysis of the CS/DS chains showed a higher proportion of GlcUAβ1-3GalNAc(4,6-O-disulfate) (E-units) in LM8G7 (12%) than in its parental cell line LM8 (6%), which rarely forms tumors in the liver. Immunostaining with GD3G7, an antibody specific to E-units, confirmed the higher expression of the epitope in LM8G7 than LM8 cells. The tumor focal formation of LM8G7 cells in the liver in mice was effectively inhibited by the preadministration of CS-E (rich in E-unit) or the preincubation of the antibody GD3G7 with the tumor cells. CS-E or GD3G7 inhibited the adhesion of LM8G7 cells to a laminin-coated plate in vitro. In addition, the invasive ability of LM8G7 cells in vitro was also reduced by the addition of CS-E or the antibody. Further, CS-E or the antibody inhibited the proliferation of LM8G7 cells dose dependently. The binding of LM8G7 cells to VEGF in vitro was also significantly reduced by CS-E and GD3G7. Thus, the present study reveals the significance of highly sulfated CS/DS structures in the liver colonization of osteosarcoma cells and also provides a framework for the development of GAG-based anticancer molecules.

  S Namiki , S Ishidoya , A Ito , T Tochigi , I Numata , K Narazaki , S Yamada , Y Takai and Y. Arai
  Objective

We evaluated health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients with localized prostate cancer who underwent intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) or three-field conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT).

Methods

A total of 97 patients underwent 3DCRT and 36 underwent IMRT for localized prostate cancer between 2002 and 2004. We measured the general and disease-specific HRQOL with the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Health Survey and University of California, Los Angeles Prostate Cancer Index, respectively.

Results

There were no significant differences in the pre-operative characteristics of the two groups. The patients in the 3DCRT group were more likely to receive hormonal therapy compared with the IMRT group before and after radiation therapy (P < 0.001 and P = 0.011, respectively). With regard to general HRQOL domains, both the 3DCRT and IMRT group scores showed no significant difference between baseline and any of the observation periods. At 60 months after treatment, the 3DCRT group had significantly worse bowel function and bother scores than baseline (both P < 0.001). On the other hand, there were no significant differences between the baseline and any of the post-treatment time periods in the IMRT group. In the 3DCRT group, sexual function remained substantially lower than the baseline level (P = 0.023). The IMRT group tended to show a decrease in sexual function, which was not statistically significant (P = 0.11).

Conclusions

IMRT can provide the possibility to deliver a high irradiation dose to the prostate with satisfactory functional outcomes for long-term periods.

  A Fukumura , H Tsujii , T Kamada , M Baba , H Tsuji , H Kato , S Kato , S Yamada , S Yasuda , T Yanagi , R Hara , N Yamamoto , J Mizoe , K Akahane , S Fukuda , Y Furusawa , Y Iwata , T Kanai , N Kanematsu , A Kitagawa , N Matsufuji , S Minohara , N Miyahara , H Mizuno , T Murakami , K Nishizawa , K Noda , E Takada and S. Yonai
 

The features of relativistic carbon-ion beams are attractive from the viewpoint of radiotherapy. They exhibit not only a superior physical dose distribution but also an increase in biological efficiency with depth, because energy loss of the beams increases as they penetrate the body. This paper reviews clinical aspects of carbon-beam radiotherapy using the experience at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences. The paper also outlines the dosimetry related to carbon-beam radiotherapy, including absolute dosimetry of the carbon beam, neutron measurements and radiation protection measurements.

 
 
 
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