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Articles by S Watkins
Total Records ( 3 ) for S Watkins
  M Lu , D Patsouris , P Li , J Flores Riveros , J. M Frincke , S Watkins , S Schenk and J. M. Olefsky
 

Tissue macrophage inflammatory pathways contribute to obesity-associated insulin resistance. Here, we have examined the efficacy and mechanisms of action of a novel anti-inflammatory compound (HE3286) in vitro and in vivo. In primary murine macrophages, HE3286 attenuates LPS- and TNF-stimulated inflammation. In Zucker diabetic fatty rats, inflammatory cytokine/chemokine expression was downregulated in liver and adipose tissue by HE3286 treatment, as was macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue. In line with reduced inflammation, HE3286 treatment normalized fasting and fed glucose levels, improved glucose tolerance, and enhanced skeletal muscle and liver insulin sensitivity, as assessed by hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp studies. In phase 2 clinical trials, HE3286 treatment led to an enhancement in insulin sensitivity in humans. Gluconeogenic capacity was also reduced by HE3286 treatment, as evidenced by a reduced glycemic response during pyruvate tolerance tests and decreased basal hepatic glucose production (HGP) rates. Since serum levels of gluconeogenic substrates were decreased by HE3286, it indicates that the reduction of both intrinsic gluconeogenic capacity and substrate availability contributes to the decrease in HGP. Lipidomic analysis revealed that HE3286 treatment reduced liver cholesterol and triglyceride content, leading to a feedback elevation of LDL receptor and HMG-CoA reductase expression. Accordingly, HE3286 treatment markedly decreased total serum cholesterol. In conclusion, HE3286 is a novel anti-inflammatory compound, which displays both glucose-lowering and cholesterol-lowering effects.

  B Burtness , M Gibson , B Egleston , R Mehra , L Thomas , R Sipples , M Quintanilla , J Lacy , S Watkins , J. R Murren and A. A. Forastiere
 

Background: Preclinical evidence suggests synergy between docetaxel and irinotecan, two drugs active in esophagogastric cancer. We previously demonstrated the safety of docetaxel 35 mg/m2 and irinotecan 50 mg/m2 given on days 1 and 8 of a 21-day schedule.

Materials and methods: Patients who had unresectable/metastatic squamous cell carcinoma or adenocarcinoma of the esophagus, measurable disease, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of zero to two, and normal bilirubin were eligible. Tumor assessment was carried out every three cycles.

Results: We enrolled 29 chemotherapy-naive (CN) and 15 chemotherapy-exposed (CE) eligible patients. Principal toxic effects were diarrhea, neutropenia, and hyperglycemia. There were no toxic deaths. There was one early death, from myocardial infarction. Among 26 CN and assessable patients, there were seven (26.9%) with a partial response (PR) and one (3.8%) with a complete response (CR). There were two PRs and one CR among the patients with CE disease. Median time to progression for CN patients was 4.0 months and for CE patients 3.5 months. Median survival for CN eligible patients was 9.0 months and for CE patients 11.4 months.

Conclusions: Docetaxel–irinotecan combination given on a weekly x 2 of 3 schedule is promising in the treatment of advanced esophageal cancer.

  S Watkins , R McGeoch , J Lyne , T Steedman , R Good , M. J McLaughlin , T Cunningham , V Bezlyak , I Ford , H. J Dargie and K. G. Oldroyd
 

Background— Magnetic resonance myocardial perfusion imaging (MRMPI) has a number of advantages over the other noninvasive tests used to detect reversible myocardial ischemia. The majority of previous studies have generally used quantitative coronary angiography as the gold standard to assess the accuracy of MRMPI; however, only an approximate relationship exists between stenosis severity and functional significance. Pressure wire–derived fractional flow reserve (FFR) values <0.75 correlate closely with objective evidence of reversible ischemia. Accordingly, we have compared MRMPI with FFR.

Methods and Results— One hundred three patients referred for investigation of suspected angina underwent MRMPI with a 1.5-T scanner. The stress agent was intravenous adenosine (140 µg · kg–1 · min–1), and the first-pass bolus contained 0.1 mmol/kg gadolinium. In the following week, coronary angiography with pressure wire studies was performed. FFR was recorded in all patent major epicardial coronary arteries, with a value <0.75 denoting significant stenosis. MRMPI scans, analyzed by 2 blinded observers, identified perfusion defects in 121 of 300 coronary artery segments (40%), of which 110 had an FFR <0.75. We also found that 168 of 179 normally perfused segments had an FFR ≥0.75. The sensitivity and specificity of MRMPI for the detection of functionally significant coronary heart disease were 91% and 94%, respectively, with positive and negative predictive values of 91% and 94%.

Conclusion— MRMPI can detect functionally significant coronary heart disease with excellent sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values compared with FFR.

 
 
 
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