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Articles by S Watanabe
Total Records ( 2 ) for S Watanabe
  A Hirata , K Wake , S Watanabe and M. Taki

The present study quantified the in situ electric field and induced current density in anatomically based numeric Japanese male and female models for exposure to extremely low-frequency magnetic fields. A quasi-static FDTD method was applied to analyse this problem. The computational results obtained herein reveal that the 99th percentile value of the in situ electric field in the nerve tissue and the current density averaged over an area of 1 cm2 of the nerve tissue (excluding non-nerve tissues in the averaging region) in the female models were less than 35 and 25 %, respectively. These induced quantities in the Japanese models were smaller than those for European models reported in a previous study, which is mainly due to the difference in cross-sectional area of the body.

  H Hirai , M Verma , S Watanabe , C Tastad , Y Asakura and A. Asakura

The molecules that regulate the apoptosis cascade are also involved in differentiation and syncytial fusion in skeletal muscle. MyoD is a myogenic transcription factor that plays essential roles in muscle differentiation. We noticed that MyoD–/– myoblasts display remarkable resistance to apoptosis by down-regulation of miR-1 (microRNA-1) and miR-206 and by up-regulation of Pax3. This resulted in transcriptional activation of antiapoptotic factors Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL. Forced MyoD expression induces up-regulation of miR-1 and miR-206 and down-regulation of Pax3, Bcl-2, and Bcl-xL along with increased apoptosis in MyoD–/– myoblasts. In contrast, MyoD gene knockdown increases cell survival of wild-type myoblasts. The 3' untranslated region of Pax3 mRNA contains two conserved miR-1/miR-206–binding sites, which are required for targeting of these microRNAs (miRNAs). Therefore, these data suggest that MyoD not only regulates terminal differentiation but also apoptosis through miRNA-mediated down-regulation of Pax3. Finally, MyoD, miR-1, and miR-206 are all down-regulated in quiescent satellite cells, which may be required for maintenance of muscle stem cells.

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