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Articles by S Wacholder
Total Records ( 3 ) for S Wacholder
  T. K Lam , M Rotunno , J. H Lubin , S Wacholder , D Consonni , A. C Pesatori , P. A Bertazzi , S. J Chanock , L Burdette , A. M Goldstein , M. A Tucker , N. E Caporaso , A. F Subar and M. T. Landi
 

Epidemiological and mechanistic evidence on the association of quercetin-rich food intake with lung cancer risk and carcinogenesis are inconclusive. We investigated the role of dietary quercetin and the interaction between quercetin and P450 and glutathione S-transferase (GST) polymorphisms on lung cancer risk in 1822 incident lung cancer cases and 1991 frequency-matched controls from the Environment And Genetics in Lung cancer Etiology study. In non-tumor lung tissue from 38 adenocarcinoma patients, we assessed the correlation between quercetin intake and messenger RNA expression of the same P450 and GST metabolic genes. Multivariate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for sex-specific quintiles of intake were calculated using unconditional logistic regression adjusting for putative risk factors. Frequent intake of quercetin-rich foods was inversely associated with lung cancer risk (OR = 0.49; 95% CI: 0.37–0.67; P-trend < 0.001) and did not differ by P450 or GST genotypes, gender or histological subtypes. The association was stronger in subjects who smoked >20 cigarettes per day (OR = 0.35; 95% CI: 0.19–0.66; P-trend = 0.003). Based on a two-sample t-test, we compared gene expression and high versus low consumption of quercetin-rich foods and observed an overall upregulation of GSTM1, GSTM2, GSTT2, and GSTP1 as well as a downregulation of specific P450 genes (P-values < 0.05, adjusted for age and smoking status). In conclusion, we observed an inverse association of quercetin-rich food with lung cancer risk and identified a possible mechanism of quercetin-related changes in the expression of genes involved in the metabolism of tobacco carcinogens in humans. Our findings suggest an interplay between quercetin intake, tobacco smoking, and lung cancer risk. Further research on this relationship is warranted.

  A. C Rodriguez , M Schiffman , R Herrero , A Hildesheim , C Bratti , M. E Sherman , D Solomon , D Guillen , M Alfaro , J Morales , M Hutchinson , H Katki , L Cheung , S Wacholder and R. D. Burk
  Background

The natural history of human papillomavirus (HPV) infections in older women is critical for preventive strategies, including vaccination and screening intervals, but is poorly understood. In a 7-year population-based cohort study in Guanacaste, Costa Rica, we examined whether women’s age and the duration of carcinogenic HPV infections influenced subsequent persistence of infection and risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 (CIN 2) or worse disease.

Methods

At enrollment, of the 9466 participants eligible for pelvic examination, 9175 were screened for cervical neoplasia using multiple methods; those with CIN 2 or worse disease were censored and treated. Participants at low risk of CIN 2 or worse (n = 6029) were rescreened at 5–7 years (passively followed), whereas higher-risk participants (n = 2115) and subsets of low-risk women (n = 540) and initially sexually inactive women (n = 410) were rescreened annually or semiannually (actively followed) for up to 7 years. HPV testing was done using a polymerase chain reaction–based method. We determined, by four age groups (18–25, 26–33, 34–41, and ≥42 years), the proportion of prevalent infections (found at baseline) and newly detected infections (first found during follow-up) that persisted at successive 1-year time points and calculated absolute risks of CIN 2 and CIN grade 3 (CIN 3) or worse during follow-up. P values are two-sided.

Results

Regardless of the woman's age, newly detected infections were associated with very low absolute risks of persistence, CIN 2, or worse disease. For newly detected infections, the rate of progression to CIN 2+ (or CIN 3+), after 3 years of follow-up, was not higher for women aged 34 years and older than for younger women. Moreover, rates of newly detected infections declined sharply with age (in the actively followed group, at ages 18–25, 26–33, 34–41, and ≥42 years, rates were 35.9%, 30.6%, 18.1%, and 13.5%, respectively; P < .001). Among prevalent infections, persistent infections among older women (≥42 years) was higher than that among younger age groups or new infections at any age (P < .01 for comparison of eight groups). Most (66 of 85) CIN 2 or worse detected during follow-up was associated with prevalent infections. Only a small subset (25 of 1128) of prevalent infections persisted throughout follow-up without apparent CIN 2 or worse.

Conclusions

The rate of new infections declines with age, and new infections typically do not progress to CIN 2 or worse disease in older women; thus, overall potential benefit of prophylactic vaccination or frequent HPV screening to prevent or detect new carcinogenic HPV infections at older ages is low.

  M Safaeian , K Quint , M Schiffman , A. C Rodriguez , S Wacholder , R Herrero , A Hildesheim , R. P Viscidi , W Quint and R. D. Burk
  Background

Cofactors might affect the risk of the rare progression from infection with carcinogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) to cervical premalignancy to invasive cancer. Some studies have observed that Chlamydia trachomatis infection is associated with increased risk for cervical cancer. In a large prospective cohort, we assessed the role of C trachomatis in cervical premalignancy and addressed confounding by HPV.

Methods

We identified 182 women with prevalent and 132 women with incident histological cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 (CIN2), grade 3 (CIN3), or cervical cancer (CIN2+) in the Costa Rica HPV Natural History Study. Control subjects were 995 (approximately 10% of the 10 049) subjects who were randomly selected from the same study. Cervical HPV status at enrollment was determined by MY09/MY11 polymerase chain reaction amplification and dot-blot hybridization. The presence of C trachomatis DNA in cervical exfoliated cells at enrollment was determined by a novel serovar-specific polymerase chain reaction–based C trachomatis detection and genotyping assay. Plasma drawn at enrollment from each subject was used to determine C trachomatis immunoglobulin G (IgG) status. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between C trachomatis and CIN2+, taking into account possible confounding by HPV.

Results

C trachomatis positivity at enrollment was associated with CIN2+ and concurrent and subsequent carcinogenic HPV infection. To account for confounding by HPV status, we restricted the analysis to women positive for carcinogenic HPV DNA at enrollment and found no association between C trachomatis status (as assessed by DNA or IgG) at enrollment and combined prevalent and/or incident CIN2+ (for C trachomatis DNA positivity, odds ratio = 0.77, 95% confidence interval = 0.42 to 1.41; for C trachomatis seropositivity, odds ratio = 1.09, 95% confidence interval = 0.85 to 1.41).

Conclusions

We found no association between C trachomatis status, as assessed by DNA or IgG, and risk of cervical premalignancy, after controlling for carcinogenic HPV-positive status. Previous positive associations between C trachomatis and cervical premalignancy could have been caused, in part, by an increased susceptibility to HPV infection.

 
 
 
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