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Articles by S Thobois
Total Records ( 2 ) for S Thobois
  F Clot , D Grabli , C Cazeneuve , E Roze , P Castelnau , B Chabrol , P Landrieu , K Nguyen , G Ponsot , M Abada , D Doummar , P Damier , R Gil , S Thobois , A. J Ward , M Hutchinson , A Toutain , F Picard , A Camuzat , E Fedirko , C San , D Bouteiller , E LeGuern , A Durr , M Vidailhet , A Brice and the French Dystonia Network
 

Dopa-responsive dystonia is a childhood-onset dystonic disorder, characterized by a dramatic response to low dose of l-Dopa. Dopa-responsive dystonia is mostly caused by autosomal dominant mutations in the GCH1 gene (GTP cyclohydrolase1) and more rarely by autosomal recessive mutations in the TH (tyrosine hydroxylase) or SPR (sepiapterin reductase) genes. In addition, mutations in the PARK2 gene (parkin) which causes autosomal recessive juvenile parkinsonism may present as Dopa-responsive dystonia. In order to evaluate the relative frequency of the mutations in these genes, but also in the genes involved in the biosynthesis and recycling of BH4, and to evaluate the associated clinical spectrum, we have studied a large series of index patients (n = 64) with Dopa-responsive dystonia, in whom dystonia improved by at least 50% after l-Dopa treatment. Fifty seven of these patients were classified as pure Dopa-responsive dystonia and seven as Dopa-responsive dystonia-plus syndromes. All patients were screened for point mutations and large rearrangements in the GCH1 gene, followed by sequencing of the TH and SPR genes, then PTS (pyruvoyl tetrahydropterin synthase), PCBD (pterin-4a-carbinolamine dehydratase), QDPR (dihydropteridin reductase) and PARK2 (parkin) genes. We identified 34 different heterozygous point mutations in 40 patients, and six different large deletions in seven patients in the GCH1 gene. Except for one patient with mental retardation and a large deletion of 2.3 Mb encompassing 10 genes, all patients had stereotyped clinical features, characterized by pure Dopa-responsive dystonia with onset in the lower limbs and an excellent response to low doses of l-Dopa. Dystonia started in the first decade of life in 40 patients (85%) and before the age of 1 year in one patient (2.2%). Three of the 17 negative GCH1 patients had mutations in the TH gene, two in the SPR gene and one in the PARK2 gene. No mutations in the three genes involved in the biosynthesis and recycling of BH4 were identified. The clinical presentations of patients with mutations in TH and SPR genes were strikingly more complex, characterized by mental retardation, oculogyric crises and parkinsonism and they were all classified as Dopa-responsive dystonia-plus syndromes. Patient with mutation in the PARK2 gene had Dopa-responsive dystonia with a good improvement with l-Dopa, similar to Dopa-responsive dystonia secondary to GCH1 mutations. Although the yield of mutations exceeds 80% in pure Dopa-responsive dystonia and Dopa-responsive dystonia-plus syndromes groups, the genes involved are clearly different: GCH1 in the former and TH and SPR in the later.

  S Thobois , C Ardouin , E Lhommee , H Klinger , C Lagrange , J Xie , V Fraix , M. C Coelho Braga , R Hassani , A Kistner , A Juphard , E Seigneuret , S Chabardes , P Mertens , G Polo , A Reilhac , N Costes , D LeBars , M Savasta , L Tremblay , J. L Quesada , J. L Bosson , A. L Benabid , E Broussolle , P Pollak and P. Krack
 

Apathy has been reported to occur after subthalamic nucleus stimulation, a treatment of motor complications in advanced Parkinson’s disease. We carried out a prospective study of the occurrence of apathy and associated symptoms, predictors and mechanisms in the year following subthalamic stimulation. Dopamine agonist drugs were discontinued immediately after surgery and levodopa was markedly reduced within 2 weeks. Apathy and depression were assessed monthly, using the Starkstein apathy scale and the Beck Depression Inventory. Dopamine agonists were re-introduced if patients developed apathy or depression. Preoperative non-motor fluctuations were evaluated using the Ardouin Scale. Depression, apathy and anxiety were evaluated both on and off levodopa. Analysis of predictors of apathy was performed using a Cox proportional hazard model. Twelve patients who developed apathy and a control group of 13 patients who did not underwent [11C]-raclopride positron emission tomography scanning before and after oral intake of methylphenidate. In 63 patients with Parkinson’s disease treated with subthalamic stimulation, dopaminergic treatment was decreased by 82% after surgery. Apathy occurred after a mean of 4.7 (3.3–8.2) months in 34 patients and was reversible in half of these by the 12-month follow-up. Seventeen patients developed transient depression after 5.7 (4.7–9.3) months and these fell into the apathy group with one single exception. At baseline, fluctuations in depression, apathy and anxiety scores were greater in the group with apathy. Fluctuations in apathy, depression and anxiety ratings during a baseline levodopa challenge were also significant predictors of postoperative apathy in univariate analysis, but not motor and cognitive states or the level of reduction of dopaminergic medication. The multivariate model identified non-motor fluctuations in everyday life and anxiety score during the baseline levodopa challenge as two independent significant predictors of postoperative apathy. Without methylphenidate, [11C]-raclopride binding potential values were greater in apathetic patients bilaterally in the orbitofrontal, dorsolateral prefrontal, posterior cingulate and temporal cortices, left striatum and right amygdala, reflecting greater dopamine D2/D3 receptor density and/or reduced synaptic dopamine level in these areas. The variations of [11C]-raclopride binding potential values induced by methylphenidate were greater in non-apathetic patients in the left orbitofrontal cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, thalamus and internal globus pallidus and bilaterally in the anterior and posterior cingulate cortices, consistent with a more important capacity to release dopamine. Non-motor fluctuations are related to mesolimbic dopaminergic denervation. Apathy, depression and anxiety can occur after surgery as a delayed dopamine withdrawal syndrome. A varying extent of mesolimbic dopaminergic denervation and differences in dopaminergic treatment largely determine mood, anxiety and motivation in patients with Parkinson’s disease, contributing to different non-motor phenotypes.

 
 
 
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