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Articles by S Simkin
Total Records ( 3 ) for S Simkin
  B Platt , K Hawton , S Simkin and R. J. Mellanby
 

Background An accumulating body of research demonstrates that risk of suicide varies between occupational groups. Identification of the occupations at risk, and the factors that contribute to the increased risk of suicide in these groups is essential for the development of effective suicide prevention strategies. There is preliminary evidence to suggest that veterinary surgeons are a group at risk.

Aims To conduct a systematic review of studies of rates and methods of suicide in the veterinary profession.

Methods A systematic search of the international research literature was performed in May 2008. The data from the 19 studies of the prevalence of suicide in the veterinary profession were extracted by two independent reviewers and analysed.

Results Between 0 and 43% of veterinary surgeon deaths were due to suicide. In all but one of the 15 studies presenting risk of suicide in veterinary surgeons with a comparison population, an elevated risk was found. The better quality studies with the lowest risk of bias indicated that in the UK, the rate of suicide in the veterinary profession was at least three times the general population rate. Studies of the methods of suicide veterinary surgeons use suggest that self-poisoning and firearms are particularly common.

Conclusions There appears to be an elevated risk of suicide for veterinary surgeons in several countries. Access to means of suicide influences the methods used and may contribute to increased risk.

  K Hawton , H Bergen , S Simkin , J Cooper , K Waters , D Gunnell and N. Kapur
 

Background

Self-poisoning is a common method of suicide and often involves ingestion of antidepressants. Information on the relative toxicity of antidepressants is therefore extremely important.

Aims

To assess the relative toxicity of specific tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), a serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor (SNRI), a noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressant (NaSSA), and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs).

Method

Observational study of prescriptions (UK), poisoning deaths involving single antidepressants receiving coroners’ verdicts of suicide or undetermined intent (England and Wales) and non-fatal self-poisoning episodes presenting to six general hospitals (in Oxford, Manchester and Derby) between 2000 and 2006. Calculation of fatal toxicity index based on ratio of rates of deaths to prescriptions, and case fatality based on ratio of rates of deaths to non-fatal self-poisonings.

Results

Fatal toxicity and case fatality indices provided very similar results (rho for relative ranking of indices 0.99). Case fatality rate ratios showed greater toxicity for TCAs (13.8, 95% CI 13.0–14.7) than the SNRI venlafaxine (2.5, 95% CI 2.0–3.1) and the NaSSA mirtazapine (1.9, 95% CI 1.1–2.9), both of which had greater toxicity than the SSRIs (0.5, 95% CI 0.4–0.7). Within the TCAs, compared with amitriptyline both dosulepin (relative toxicity index 2.7) and doxepin (2.6) were more toxic. Within the SSRIs, citalopram had a higher case fatality than the other SSRIs (1.1, 95% CI 0.8–1.4 v. 0.3, 95% CI 0.2–0.4).

Conclusions

There are wide differences in toxicity not only between classes of antidepressants, but also within classes. The findings are relevant to prescribing decisions, especially in individuals at risk, and to regulatory policy.

 
 
 
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