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Articles by S Schulz
Total Records ( 4 ) for S Schulz
  S Schulz , E Beisswanger , L van den Hoek , O Bodenreider and E. M. van Mulligen

Motivation: For many years, the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) semantic network (SN) has been used as an upper-level semantic framework for the categorization of terms from terminological resources in biomedicine. BioTop has recently been developed as an upper-level ontology for the biomedical domain. In contrast to the SN, it is founded upon strict ontological principles, using OWL DL as a formal representation language, which has become standard in the semantic Web. In order to make logic-based reasoning available for the resources annotated or categorized with the SN, a mapping ontology was developed aligning the SN with BioTop.

Methods: The theoretical foundations and the practical realization of the alignment are being described, with a focus on the design decisions taken, the problems encountered and the adaptations of BioTop that became necessary. For evaluation purposes, UMLS concept pairs obtained from MEDLINE abstracts by a named entity recognition system were tested for possible semantic relationships. Furthermore, all semantic-type combinations that occur in the UMLS Metathesaurus were checked for satisfiability.

Results: The effort-intensive alignment process required major design changes and enhancements of BioTop and brought up several design errors that could be fixed. A comparison between a human curator and the ontology yielded only a low agreement. Ontology reasoning was also used to successfully identify 133 inconsistent semantic-type combinations.

  R Wessely , T Koppara , C Bradaric , M Vorpahl , S Braun , S Schulz , J Mehilli , A Schomig , A Kastrati and for the Contrast Media and Nephrotoxicity Following Coronary Revascularization by Angioplasty (CONTR

Background— No clinical trial has yet focused on contrast-mediated nephrotoxicity in patients with chronic renal failure exclusively undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the effect of contemporary contrast media on nephrotoxicity in this high-risk patient population.

Methods and Results— This prospective, randomized, double-blind, comparative clinical trial randomly selected 939 patients with chronic renal failure undergoing coronary angiography with potential PCI to receive either the iso-osmolar contrast medium iodixanol or the low-osmolar contrast medium iomeprol. Of those 939 patients, 615 received diagnostic angiography only and were not included in the primary study analysis, but were followed up in a registry. Three hundred twenty-four patients underwent PCI, of which one-half received iodixanol or iomeprol, respectively, and were included in the primary study analysis. The primary end point was the peak increase in S-creatinine during hospitalization for PCI. Maximum increase in S-creatinine after PCI was lower than expected and thus impaired the power of the study. It was not significantly different between the 2 contrast groups (0.19±0.40 mg/dL for iodixanol and 0.21±0.34 mg/dL for iomeprol; P=0.53). Albeit contrast media-induced nephropathy rates were lower with iodixanol (22.2% compared with 27.8% for iomeprol), this difference was not statistically different (P=0.25). Subgroup analysis suggested a favorable outcome regarding nephrotoxicity in patients who received higher contrast volumes (>340 mL) in the iodixanol group (Pinteraction=0.016).

Conclusions— Routine use of iso-osmolar contrast medium is not associated with a significant reduction of nephrotoxicity compared with low-osmolar contrast medium in patients with chronic renal failure undergoing PCI. However, a positive effect was seen in the iso-osmolar contrast group for patients receiving high amounts of contrast medium, which awaits confirmation of a specifically designed randomized clinical trial.

Clinical Trial Registration— Identifier: NCT00390585

  I Ott , S Schulz , J Mehilli , S Fichtner , M Hadamitzky , K Hoppe , T Ibrahim , S Martinoff , S Massberg , K. L Laugwitz , J Dirschinger , M Schwaiger , A Kastrati , A Schmig and for the REVIVAL 3 Study Investigators

Erythropoietin improves myocardial function in experimental models of myocardial infarction. The aim of the present study was to determine the value of erythropoietin in patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction.

Methods and Results—

This randomized, double-blind study included 138 patients admitted with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction and treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention. Patients were randomly assigned to receive epoetin-β (3.33x104 U, n=68) or placebo (n=70) immediately and at 24 and 48 hours after percutaneous coronary intervention. The primary end point was left ventricular ejection fraction after 6 months measured by MRI. Other end points included infarct size at 5 days and 6 months. Clinical adverse events (death, recurrent myocardial infarction, stroke, and infarct-related artery revascularization) were investigated at 30 days and 6 months. Left ventricular ejection fraction at 6-month follow-up was 52.0±9.1% in the erythropoietin group compared with 51.8±9.3% in the placebo group (P=0.92). Five days after percutaneous coronary intervention, left ventricular ejection fraction was 49.4±8.0% in the erythropoietin group and 50.8±7.3% in the placebo group (P=0.32); infarct size was 26.8±20.9% and 28.3±24.4% (P=0.76) and decreased to 17.3±14.3% and 20.9±16.4% at 6-month follow-up (P=0.27). The cumulative 6-month incidence of death, recurrent myocardial infarction, stroke or target vessel revascularization was 13.2% in the erythropoietin group and 5.7% in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 2.36; 95% confidence interval, 0.73 to 7.66; P=0.15).


In patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention, erythropoietin treatment did not improve left ventricular ejection fraction or reduce infarct size but may increase clinical adverse events.

Clinical Trial Registration—

URL: Unique identifier: NCT00390832.

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