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Articles by S Sato
Total Records ( 7 ) for S Sato
  A. W Buckley , A. J Rodriguez , K Jennison , J Buckley , A Thurm , S Sato and S. Swedo

Objective  To compare objective polysomnographic parameters between 3 cohorts: children with autism, typical development, and developmental delay without autism.

Design  Overnight polysomnographic recordings were scored for sleep architecture according to American Academy of Sleep Medicine criteria by a board-certified sleep medicine specialist blind to diagnosis for studies collected between July 2006 and September 2009.

Setting  Subjects were evaluated in the pediatric ward in the Clinical Research Center of the National Institutes of Health.

Participants  First 60 consecutive children with autism, 15 with typical development, and 13 with developmental delay matched for nonverbal IQ to the autism group, ranging in age from 2 to 13 years, selected without regard to the presence or absence of sleep problem behavior.

Main Outcome Measures  Total sleep time, latencies to non–rapid eye movement (REM) and REM sleep, and percentages of total sleep time for stages 1 and 2 sleep, slow-wave sleep, and REM sleep.

Results  There were no differences between the typical vs developmental delay groups. Comparison of children with autism vs typical children revealed shorter total sleep time (P = .004), greater slow-wave sleep percentage (P = .001), and much smaller REM sleep percentage (14.5% vs 22.6%; P < .001). Comparison of children with autism vs children with developmental delay revealed shorter total sleep time (P = .001), greater stage 1 sleep percentage (P < .001), greater slow-wave sleep percentage (P < .001), and much less REM sleep percentage (14.5% v 25%; P < .001).

Conclusion  A relative deficiency of REM sleep may indicate an abnormality in neural organization in young children with autism that is not directly associated with or related to inherent intellectual disability but may serve as a window into understanding core neurotransmitter abnormalities unique to this disorder.

  C. M Silva , S Sato and R. N. Margolis

The objective of the workshop was to gain a better understanding of the link between circadian rhythms and human health and disease. The impacts of circadian rhythms on metabolic gene regulation, as well as the effect of nutrient uptake and balance on the molecular components of the clock, were discussed. Topics included the neural circuitry underlying the central clock; the effect of the environment and diet on the central clock as well as peripheral, tissue-specific clocks; and the transcriptional, post-transcriptional, and post-translational (e.g., epigenomic) mechanisms through which these signals are transduced. Evidence presented during the meeting demonstrated that circadian rhythms and metabolism are intricately linked, and that disruption in these rhythms have profound consequences—many times leading to metabolic disease. The mechanisms by which circadian rhythms are maintained and the cross-talk with metabolic signaling are just beginning to be elucidated. However, the interactions between these fields and the knowledge learned will clearly have a profound impact on our understanding of metabolic disease and lead to novel therapeutic approaches in the future

  L Lin , P Jiang , S Shen , S Sato , B. L Davidson and Y. Xing

Transposable elements (TEs) are major sources of new exons in higher eukaryotes. Almost half of the human genome is derived from TEs, and many types of TEs have the potential to exonize. In this work, we conducted a large-scale analysis of human exons derived from mammalian-wide interspersed repeats (MIRs), a class of old TEs which was active prior to the radiation of placental mammals. Using exon array data of 328 MIR-derived exons and RT–PCR analysis of 39 exons in 10 tissues, we identified 15 constitutively spliced MIR exons, and 15 MIR exons with tissue-specific shift in splicing patterns. Analysis of RNAs from multiple species suggests that the splicing events of many strongly included MIR exons have been established before the divergence of primates and rodents, while a small percentage result from recent exonization during primate evolution. Interestingly, exon array data suggest substantially higher splicing activities of MIR exons when compared with exons derived from Alu elements, a class of primate-specific retrotransposons. This appears to be a universal difference between exons derived from young and old TEs, as it is also observed when comparing Alu exons to exons derived from LINE1 and LINE2, two other groups of old TEs. Together, this study significantly expands current knowledge about exonization of TEs. Our data imply that with sufficient evolutionary time, numerous new exons could evolve beyond the evolutionary intermediate state and contribute functional novelties to modern mammalian genomes.

  N Mugii , M Hasegawa , Y Hamaguchi , C Tanaka , K Kaji , K Komura , I Ueda Hayakawa , S Horie , M Ikuta , K Tachino , F Ogawa , S Sato , M Fujimoto and K. Takehara

Objective. To assess red blood cell velocity in finger nail-fold capillaries using video capillaroscopy in patients with SSc and other collagen diseases.

Methods. This study included 127 patients with SSc as well as patients with SLE (n = 33), DM/PM (n = 21), RA (n = 13) and APS (n = 12), and 20 healthy subjects. Red blood cell velocity was evaluated using frame-to-frame determination of the position of capillary plasma gaps.

Results. The mean red blood cell velocity was significantly decreased in patients with SSc compared to healthy controls (63.0% reduction) and patients with other conditions. Mean blood velocity was similar between patients with dcSSc and lcSSc. Importantly, even SSc patients with normal or non-specific nail-fold video capillaroscopic (NVC) patterns or a scleroderma early NVC pattern exhibited a significantly lower red blood cell velocity compared to healthy controls (51.7 and 61.4% reduction, respectively) or patients with other conditions, despite normal or mild capillary changes. Patients with the scleroderma active and late NVC pattern showed a more decreased blood velocity (65.5 and 66.2% reduction, respectively). This reduced blood velocity was significantly associated with NVC findings, including capillary ramification and capillary loss. Although remarkably reduced velocity was observed in SSc patients with intractable digital ulcers (72.1% reduction), it was significantly improved by lipo-prostaglandin E1 (lipo-PGE1) infusion.

Conclusion. Our results suggest that reduced blood velocity is a hallmark of SSc. Furthermore, measurement of red blood cell velocity may be useful in evaluating therapeutic effects on microcirculation.

  N Matsuda , S Sato , K Shiba , K Okatsu , K Saisho , C. A Gautier , Y. s Sou , S Saiki , S Kawajiri , F Sato , M Kimura , M Komatsu , N Hattori and K. Tanaka

Defective mitochondrial quality control is shown to be a mechanism for neurodegeneration in some forms of Parkinson's disease.

  T Nagatake , S Fukuyama , D. Y Kim , K Goda , O Igarashi , S Sato , T Nochi , H Sagara , Y Yokota , A. M Jetten , T Kaisho , S Akira , H Mimuro , C Sasakawa , Y Fukui , K Fujihashi , T Akiyama , J. i Inoue , J. M Penninger , J Kunisawa and H. Kiyono

The eye is protected by the ocular immunosurveillance system. We show that tear duct–associated lymphoid tissue (TALT) is located in the mouse lacrimal sac and shares immunological characteristics with mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues (MALTs), including the presence of M cells and immunocompetent cells for antigen uptake and subsequent generation of mucosal immune responses against ocularly encountered antigens and bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Initiation of TALT genesis began postnatally; it occurred even in germ-free conditions and was independent of signaling through organogenesis regulators, including inhibitor of DNA binding/differentiation 2, retinoic acid–related orphan receptor t, lymphotoxin (LT) 1β2–LTβR, and lymphoid chemokines (CCL19, CCL21, and CXCL13). Thus, TALT shares immunological features with MALT but has a distinct tissue genesis mechanism and plays a key role in ocular immunity.

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