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Articles by S Rao
Total Records ( 5 ) for S Rao
  S Rao , R Srinivasjois and S. Patole

Objective  To systematically review randomized controlled trials evaluating the efficacy and safety of prebiotic supplementation in full-term neonates.

Data Sources  Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL databases and proceedings of relevant conferences.

Study Selection  Eleven of 24 identified trials (n = 1459) were eligible for inclusion.

Intervention  Trials comparing formula milk supplemented with or without prebiotics, commenced at or before age 28 days and continued for 2 weeks or longer.

Main Outcome Measures  Stool colony counts (bifidobacteria, lactobacilli, and pathogens), pH, consistency, frequency, anthropometry, and symptoms of intolerance.

Results  Six trials reported significant increases and 2 reported a trend toward increases in bifidobacteria counts after supplementation. Meta-analysis estimated significant reduction in stool pH in infants who received prebiotic supplementation (weighted mean difference, –0.65; 95% confidence interval, –0.76 to –0.54; 6 trials). Infants who receive a supplement had slightly better weight gain than did controls (weighted mean difference, 1.07 g; 95% confidence interval, 0.14-1.99; 4 trials) with softer and frequent stools similar to breastfed infants. All but 1 trial reported that prebiotic supplementation was well tolerated. In that trial, diarrhea (18% vs 4%; P = .008), irritability (16% vs 4%; P = .03), and eczema (18% vs 7%; P = .046) were reported more frequently by parents of infants who received prebiotic supplements.

Conclusions  Prebiotic-supplemented formula is well tolerated by full-term infants. It increases stool colony counts of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli and results in stools similar to those of breastfed neonates without affecting weight gain. Larger trials with long-term follow-up are needed to determine whether these short-term benefits are sustained.

  K. M Ho , M Burrell , S Rao and R. Baker

Venous thromboembolism is common after major trauma. Strategies to prevent fatal pulmonary embolism (PE) are widely utilized, but the incidence and risk factors for fatal PE are poorly understood.


Using linked data from the intensive care unit, trauma registry, Western Australian Death Registry, and post-mortem reports, the incidence and risk factors for fatal PE in a consecutive cohort of major trauma patients, admitted between 1994 and 2002, were assessed. Non-linear relationships between continuous predictors and risk of fatal PE were modelled by logistic regression.


Of the 971 consecutive trauma patients considered in the study, 134 (13.8%) died after their injuries. Fatal PE accounted for 11.9% of all deaths despite unfractionated heparin prophylaxis being used in 44% of these patients. Fatal PE occurred in those who were older (mean age 51- vs 37-yr-old, P=0.01), with more co-morbidities (Charlson's co-morbidity index 1.1 vs 0.2, P=0.01), had a larger BMI (31.8 vs 24.5, P=0.01), and less severe head and systemic injuries when compared with those who died of other causes. Sites of injuries were not significantly related to the risk of fatal PE. Fatal PE occurred much later than deaths from other causes (median 18 vs 2 days, P=0.01), and the estimated attributable mortality of PE was 49% (95% confidence interval 36–62%).


Fatal PE appeared to be a potential preventable cause of late mortality after major trauma. Severity of injuries, co-morbidity, and BMI were important risk factors for fatal PE after major trauma.

  M. T Roe , A. Y Chen , C. P Cannon , S Rao , J Rumsfeld , D. J Magid , R Brindis , L. W Klein , W. B Gibler , E. M Ohman , E. D Peterson and on behalf of the CRUSADE and ACTION GWTG Registry Participants

Background— The risks of late stent thrombosis with drug-eluting stents (DES) were intensely debated after the presentation of a number of studies highlighting this issue in September 2006. We evaluated trends in the use of DES for patients with non–ST-elevation myocardial infarction undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) from 2006 to 2008.

Methods and Results— Temporal patterns of DES use were examined among non–ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients in the Can Rapid risk stratification of Unstable angina patients Supress ADverse outcomes with Early implementation of the ACC/AHA guidelines (CRUSADE; January 2006 to December 2006) and Acute Coronary Treatment and Intervention Outcomes Network–Get With The Guidelines (ACTION–GWTG; January 2007 to June 2008) registries to determine how practice patterns changed for patients with acute myocardial infarction undergoing PCI. Among the 54 662 patients analyzed, the percentage of patients undergoing PCI by quarter varied from 54% to 58% during the analysis time period. More than 90% of patients undergoing PCI received a DES in the first 3 quarters of 2006 before the public debate about the risks of DES began. Thereafter, the use of DES for PCI patients declined during the fourth quarter of 2006 through the first quarter of 2007 (82% to 67%), gradually declined during quarters 2 to 4 of 2007 (63% to 63% to 59%) but then slightly increased from the first to second quarter of 2008 (58% to 60%). Hospital characteristics did not seem to correlate with temporal changes in DES use, but by the last 2 quarters of the study period, patient characteristics such as white race, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and private or managed care insurance were more common among patients who received a DES compared with the beginning 2 quarters of the study period.

Conclusions— These findings highlight how rapidly treatment decisions in contemporary practice can be affected by public debate related to scientific presentations and publications.

  P. E Pergola , G Gartenberg , M Fu , M Wolfson , S Rao and P. Bowers

Background and objectives: In clinical practice, physicians often use once-weekly (QW) and biweekly (Q2W) dosing of epoetin alfa to treat anemia in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Although the literature supports this practice, previous studies were limited by short treatment duration, lack of randomization, or absence of the approved three times per week (TIW) dosing arm. This randomized trial evaluated extended dosing regimens of epoetin alfa, comparing QW and Q2W to TIW dosing in anemic CKD subjects. The primary objective was to show that treatment with epoetin alfa at QW and Q2W intervals was not inferior to TIW dosing.

Design, setting, participants, & measurements: 375 subjects with stage 3 to 4 CKD were randomized equally to the three groups and treated for 44 wk; to explore the impact of changing from TIW to QW administration on hemoglobin (Hb) control and adverse events, subjects on TIW switched to QW after 22 wk. The Hb was measured weekly, and the dose of epoetin alfa was adjusted to achieve and maintain an Hb level of 11.0 to 11.9 g/dl.

Results: Both the QW and Q2W regimens met the primary efficacy endpoint. More subjects in the TIW group than in the QW and Q2W groups exceeded the Hb ceiling. Adverse events were similar across treatment groups and consistent with the morbidities of CKD patients.

Conclusions: Administration of epoetin alfa at QW and Q2W intervals are potential alternatives to TIW dosing for the treatment of anemia in stage 3 to 4 CKD subjects.

  D Grandy , J Shan , X Zhang , S Rao , S Akunuru , H Li , Y Zhang , I Alpatov , X. A Zhang , R. A Lang , D. L Shi and J. J. Zheng

Dishevelled (Dvl) is an essential protein in the Wnt signaling pathways; it uses its PDZ domain to transduce the Wnt signals from the membrane receptor Frizzled to downstream components. Here, we report identifying a drug-like small molecule compound through structure-based ligand screening and NMR spectroscopy and show the compound to interact at low micromolar affinity with the PDZ domain of Dvl. In a Xenopus testing system, the compound could permeate the cell membrane and block the Wnt signaling pathways. In addition, the compound inhibited Wnt signaling and reduced the levels of apoptosis in the hyaloid vessels of eye. Moreover, this compound also suppressed the growth of prostate cancer PC-3 cells. These biological effects suggest that by blocking the PDZ domain of Dvl, the compound identified in our studies effectively inhibits the Wnt signaling and thus provides a useful tool for studies dissecting the Wnt signaling pathways.

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