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Articles by S Ramaswamy
Total Records ( 3 ) for S Ramaswamy
  M Yu , G. A Smolen , J Zhang , B Wittner , B. J Schott , E Brachtel , S Ramaswamy , S Maheswaran and D. A. Haber

Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays an important role during normal embryogenesis, and it has been implicated in cancer invasion and metastasis. Here, we report that Ladybird homeobox 1 (LBX1), a developmentally regulated homeobox gene, directs expression of the known EMT inducers ZEB1, ZEB2, Snail1, and transforming growth factor β2 (TGFB2). In mammary epithelial cells, overexpression of LBX1 leads to morphological transformation, expression of mesenchymal markers, enhanced cell migration, increased CD44high/CD24low progenitor cell population, and tumorigenic cooperation with known oncogenes. In human breast cancer, LBX1 is up-regulated in the unfavorable estrogen receptor (ER)/progesterone (PR)/HER2 triple-negative basal-like subtype. Thus, aberrant expression of LBX1 may lead to the activation of a developmentally regulated EMT pathway in human breast cancer.

  G. A Smolen , J Zhang , M. J Zubrowski , E. J Edelman , B Luo , M Yu , L. W Ng , C. M Scherber , B. J Schott , S Ramaswamy , D Irimia , D. E Root and D. A. Haber

To define the functional pathways regulating epithelial cell migration, we performed a genome-wide RNAi screen using 55,000 pooled lentiviral shRNAs targeting ~11,000 genes, selecting for transduced cells with increased motility. A stringent validation protocol generated a set of 31 genes representing diverse pathways whose knockdown dramatically enhances cellular migration. Some of these pathways share features of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and together they implicate key regulators of transcription, cellular signaling, and metabolism, as well as novel modulators of cellular trafficking, such as DLG5. In delineating downstream pathways mediating these migration phenotypes, we observed universal activation of ERKs and a profound dependence on their RSK effectors. Pharmacological inhibition of RSK dramatically suppresses epithelial cell migration induced by knockdown of all 31 genes, suggesting that convergence of diverse migratory pathways on this kinase may provide a therapeutic opportunity in disorders of cell migration, including cancer metastasis.

  D.R Simorangkir , S Ramaswamy , G.R Marshall , C.R Pohl and T.M. Plant

Unilateral orchidectomy in monkeys increases spermatogenesis in the remaining testis in association with elevated follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) secretion and testicular testosterone. The present study examined the relative importance of FSH and testosterone in driving the primate testis toward its spermatogenic ceiling.


Adult male rhesus monkeys were treated with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor antagonist to inhibit endogenous FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion. The gonadotrophin drive to the testis was replaced with a pulsatile recombinant human FSH and LH infusion to maintain testicular volume and circulating testosterone and inhibin B at physiological levels. A selective monotropic elevation of FSH or LH that doubled the concentrations of inhibin B or testosterone, respectively, was then imposed for 4 weeks, each in a group of four monkeys. In a third group (n = 4), the gonadotrophin drive remained clamped at physiological levels. Bromo-deoxyuridine was administered 3 h prior to castration, and the effects of the monotropic hormone increments on germ cell number, S-phase labeling and degeneration were determined.


Increased FSH, but not LH, produced increases in testicular volume (P < 0.05), the proportion of A pale spermatogonia entering the cell cycle and the numbers of differentiated spermatogonia and more advanced germ cells (P < 0.05). Indexes for spermatogonia labeling and germ cell degeneration were not affected.


Under physiological conditions, circulating concentrations of FSH directly dictate sperm output of the primate testis by regulating the proportion of Ap spermatogonia in the growth fraction. An effect of FSH on survival of the first generation of differentiated B spermatogonia is not excluded.

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