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Articles by S Nakamura
Total Records ( 6 ) for S Nakamura
  S Nakamura , I Hirano , K Okinaka , T Takemura , D Yokota , T Ono , K Shigeno , K Shibata , S Fujisawa and K. Ohnishi
 

FOXM1 is an important cell cycle regulator and regulates cell proliferation. In addition, FOXM1 has been reported to contribute to oncogenesis in various cancers. However, it is not clearly understood how FOXM1 contributes to acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cell proliferation. In this study, we investigated the cellular and molecular function of FOXM1 in AML cells. The FOXM1 messenger RNA (mRNA) expressed in AML cell lines was predominantly the FOXM1B isoform, and its levels were significantly higher than in normal high aldehyde dehydrogenase activity (ALDHhi) cells. Reduction of FOXM1 expression in AML cells inhibited cell proliferation compared with control cells, through induction of G2/M cell cycle arrest, a decrease in the protein expression of Aurora kinase B, Survivin, Cyclin B1, S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 and Cdc25B and an increase in the protein expression of p21Cip1 and p27Kip1. FOXM1 messenger RNA (mRNA) was overexpressed in all 127 AML clinical specimens tested (n = 21, 56, 32 and 18 for M1, M2, M4 and M5 subtypes, respectively). Compared with normal ALDHhi cells, FOXM1 gene expression was 1.65- to 2.26-fold higher in AML cells. Moreover, the FOXM1 protein was more strongly expressed in AML-derived ALDHhi cells compared with normal ALDHhi cells. In addition, depletion of FOXM1 reduced colony formation of AML-derived ALDHhi cells due to inhibition of Cdc25B and Cyclin B1 expression. In summary, we found that FOXM1B mRNA is predominantly expressed in AML cells and that aberrant expression of FOXM1 induces AML cell proliferation through modulation of cell cycle progression. Thus, inhibition of FOXM1 expression represents an attractive target for AML therapy.

  S Nakamura , H Ishibashi Ueda , S Niizuma , F Yoshihara , T Horio and Y. Kawano
 

Background and objectives: A close linkage between chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been demonstrated. Coronary artery calcification (CAC) is considered to be the causal link connecting them. The aim of the study is to determine the relationship between level of kidney function and the prevalence of CAC.

Design, setting, participants, & measurements: Autopsy subjects known to have coronary artery disease and a wide range of kidney function were studied. Patients without CKD were classified into five groups depending on estimated GFR (eGFR) and proteinuria: eGFR ≥60 ml/min/1.73 m2 without proteinuria; CKD1/2: eGFR ≥60 ml/min/1.73 m2 with proteinuria; CKD3: 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 >eGFR ≥30 ml/min/1.73 m2; CKD4/5: eGFR <30 ml/min/1.73 m2; and CKD5D: on hemodialysis. Intimal and medial calcification of the coronary arteries was evaluated. Risk factors for CVD and uremia were identified as relevant to CAC using logistic regression analysis.

Results: Intimal calcification of plaques was present in all groups, but was most frequent and severe in the CKD5D group and less so in the CKD4/5 and CKD3 groups. Risk factors included luminal stenosis, age, smoking, diabetes, calcium-phosphorus product, inflammation, and kidney function. Medial calcification was seen in a small number of CKD4/5 and CKD5D groups. Risk factors were use of calcium-containing phosphate binders, hemodialysis treatment, and duration.

Conclusions: It was concluded that CAC was present in the intimal plaque of both nonrenal and renal patients. Renal function and traditional risks were linked to initimal calcification. Medial calcification occurred only in CKD patients.

  K Nakamura , H Saji , R Nakajima , M Okada , H Asamura , T Shibata , S Nakamura , H Tada and M. Tsuboi
 

A Phase III study was started in Japan to evaluate the non-inferiority in overall survival of segmentectomy compared with lobectomy in patients with small-sized (diameter ≤2 cm) peripheral non-small cell lung cancer, excluding radiologically determined non-invasive cancer. This study began in August 2009, and a total of 1100 patients will be accrued from 71 institutions within 3 years. The primary endpoint is overall survival. The secondary endpoints are post-operative respiratory function, relapse-free survival, proportion of local recurrence, adverse events, proportion of patients who complete segmentectomy, duration of hospitalization, duration of chest tube placement, operation time, blood loss and number of auto-sutures used. This study is one of the first intergroup studies in Japan between the Japan Clinical Oncology Group and the West Japan Oncology Group.

  M Morimoto , K Nishiyama , S Nakamura , O Suzuki , Y Kawaguchi , A Nakajima , A Imai , R Ishihara , H Uemura , T Fujii , K Yoshino and Y. Tomita
  Objective

The efficacy of endoscopic screening for esophageal cancer in patients with hypopharyngeal cancer remains controversial and its impact on prognosis has not been adequately discussed. We studied the use of endoscopic screening to detect esophageal cancer in hypopharyngeal cancer patients by analyzing the incidence, stage and prognosis.

Methods

We included 64 patients with hypopharyngeal cancer who received radical radiotherapy at our institute. Chromoendoscopic esophageal examinations with Lugol dye solution were routinely performed at and after treatment for hypopharyngeal cancer.

Results

Twenty-eight esophageal cancers were detected in 28 (41%) patients (18 synchronous and 10 metachronous cancers). Of the 28 cancers, 23 were stage 0 or I cancer and 15 of these were treated with endoscopic resection. Local control was achieved in all of these 23 stage 0 or I cancers. The 5-year overall survival rates with esophageal cancer were 83% in stage 0, 47% in stage I and 0% in stage IIA–IVB.

Conclusions

This study showed a strikingly high incidence of esophageal cancer in hypopharyngeal cancer patients. We suppose that the combination of early detection by chromoendoscopic examination and endoscopic resection for associated esophageal cancer in hypopharyngeal cancer patients improve prognosis and maintain quality of life.

  H Ikehata , R Okuyama , E Ogawa , S Nakamura , A Usami , T Mori , K Tanaka , S Aiba and T. Ono
 

p53 suppresses the genomic instability provoked by genotoxic agents. Ultraviolet (UV) B induces skin cancers by producing DNA damage and mutations in the skin genome, whereas the skin tissue responds to the UVB insult with cell cycle arrest and apoptosis as well as damage exclusion by DNA repair. To address the p53 contribution to these skin responses in vivo, we analyzed the time course of DNA damage removal, apoptosis induction and hyperplasia in the skin after UVB irradiation in p53-knockout mice. We also examined UVB-induced mutations in the skin. We found that p53 deficiency does not abolish the UVB-induced apoptotic response in the epidermis but delays the process and the following hyperplasia 12–24 h. Regardless of the p53 genotype, 1 kJ/m2 UVB induced a total replacement of the epidermal layer by destroying the damaged epidermis by apoptosis and rebuilding a new one through hyperplasia. We failed to detect a clear defect in removal of UVB-induced DNA photolesions from the genome of the p53-deficient skin except for a delay in the epidermis, which seemed to result from the delay in the apoptotic response. However, we found that p53 deficiency enhanced UVB-induced mutagenesis. Furthermore, in a genetic study using Xpa-knockout mice, we showed that the enhanced mutagenic response depends on the activity of nucleotide excision repair (NER), which was also supported by the mutation spectrum observed in the UVB-exposed p53-knockout mice. These results indicate that p53 protects the skin genome from the UVB genotoxicity by facilitating NER, whereas its contribution to the UVB-induced apoptosis is limited.

  R Takahashi , S Nakamura , T Nakazawa , K Minoura , T Yoshida , Y Nishi , Y Kobayashi and T. Ohkubo
 

Nicotinamide (NM) phosphoribosyltransferase (NMPRTase) catalyzes the reaction of NM and 5'-phosphoribosyl-1'-pyrophosphate (PRPP) to form NM mononucleotide (NMN) and pyrophosphate (PPi) in the pathway of NAD-biosynthesis. Monitoring the 1H and 31P NMR spectra of the reaction mixture, we found that this reaction is reversible as dictated by the equilibrium constant K = [NMN][PPi]/([NM][PRPP]) = 0.14, which agreed well with the ratio of second-order rate constants for forward and backward reactions, K = 0.16. The crystal structures of this enzyme in the free form and bound to NM and PRPP at the resolution of 2.0–2.2 Å were essentially identical to that of the complex with NMN, except for some variations that could facilitate the substitution reaction by fixing the nucleophile and the leaving group for the requisite inversion of configuration at the C1’ carbon of the ribose ring. In the active site near the C1’ atom of the bound PRPP or NMN, there was neither negatively charged group nor waterproof environment necessary to support the feasibility of a ribo-oxocarbocation intermediate inherent in the SN1 mechanism. The structures and catalytic mechanism thus revealed are also discussed in connection with the multiple biological functions of NMPRTase.

 
 
 
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